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A European reform for US higher education? The limits of the Bologna process . Dr Cecile Hoareau Berkeley CSHE & Maastricht School of Governance Presentation for 13 th February 2012 CHEER Sussex. Introduction. Comparison between two higher education reform processes in Europe and the US

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a european reform for us higher education the limits of the bologna process

A European reform for US higher education? The limits of the Bologna process

Dr Cecile Hoareau

Berkeley CSHE & Maastricht School of Governance

Presentation for 13th February 2012 CHEER Sussex

introduction
Introduction
  • Comparison between two higher education reform processes in Europe and the US
      • The Bologna process (Europe)
      • Degree profile experiment (US)
  • Why did the Bologna process lead to major changes in Europe but similar attempts have been more limited in the US?
  • An example of theoretical adjustment

(from Hoareau, 2011)

  • For Comparative Journal of Education
outline
Outline
  • European HE reforms: the Bologna process
  • The Bologna process as ‘deliberative governance’
  • Research questions
  • Multiple methodologies
  • Widespread changes in Europe
  • A European style of reforms for US HE?
  • Explaining differences: the limits of deliberative governance
  • Conclusion
european higher education reforms the bologna process
European higher education reforms: the Bologna process
  • Who?
    • 46 member states
  • What does it seek to achieve?
    • European HE becoming more like the UK system?
    • Facilitate comparability
      • Accessible Higher education
      • Consistent measurement of credits
      • Define and measure learning outcomes for all disciplines
    • Tackle more sensitive questions e.g. role of the Government in higher education management, financing etc.

Member states of the Bologna process

european higher education reforms the bologna process1
European higher education reforms: the Bologna process
  • Why is it important?
    • In economic terms, higher education a major ‘export industry’
      • 1st in terms of output generation in the UK (UUK, 2006)
      • Top third before the entertainment industry in the US (Douglass, Edelstein and Hoareau, 2011)
    • For Europe
      • Facilitate movements across borders
      • Start a European-wide debate on learning and its value
european higher education reforms the bologna process2
European higher education reforms: the Bologna process
  • Why?
    • Concern about the quality of European higher education (Attali, 1998: annex 8).
    • In perspective of international competition
      • Growing influence of India, China, Brazil and Australia in the economy and higher education (Allègre, 1993; interviews FF1, 02 May 2007, FCM1 28 April 2007)
    • ‘Prepare […] for the brain competition that the 21st century will constitute’ (Allègre, 1997)
european higher education reforms the bologna process5
European higher education reforms: the Bologna process
  • No coercion
  • A set of ministerial declarations
  • A complex network of agencies, programs, evaluations
      • Eg. Tuning Europe produces ‘reference points’ on what is being learnt

Tuning programme

Deliberative governance (Hoareau, 2011)

deliberative governance
Deliberative governance
  • A mode of governance relying on:
  • Deliberation
    • Justify positions with reasoned arguments
    • Open to each other’s arguments
    • Reciprocity
  • Resulting in
    • Problem solving, ‘framing’, learning, incremental policy change
    • Gehring, 2003; Habermas, 1984; Risse, 2000; Teague, 2001
resarch questions
Resarch questions
  • Is it possible to obtain significant policy change without coercion?
    • A ‘talking shop’ or a consequential policy tool?
      • Does it change participants’ opinions?
      • Does it lead to policy reforms?
multiple methodologies
Multiple methodologies
  • Unit of measurement: individual opinions and subsequent domestic reforms
  • Multiple methodologies
    • 72 interviews in Europe & 40 in US
    • Cases of deliberations Archival work & secondary sources
    • Analysis of reforms from 1999
    • Online survey of 160 participants (25% response rate)
      • Retrospectively measure to which extent participants have changed their opinions and how much weight they give to participations to deliberations
      • Various dimensions of relevant to the Bologna process (institutional management, qualifications, quality assurance)
  • Objective: triangulation
widespread changes in europe
Widespread changes in Europe

Logistic and multinomial regression results

widespread changes in europe1
Widespread changes in Europe

‘Minds matured and mentalities changed and everyone was aware over all the territory that if we do not agree on what we should do, in any case we cannot leave the system like this.’ (Interview FCM 3, 15 June 2007)

widespread changes in europe3
Widespread changes in Europe

Other reforms as riders, e.g. France 2003 and 2007

widespread changes in europe4
Widespread changes in Europe
  • Interpretation
    • Deliberative governance can lead to a significant change of opinions and coordinated policy change in Europe (Hoareau, 2010)
7 a european style of reform for us higher education
7. A European style of reform for US higher education?
  • Increasing attention to the Bologna process (Adelman, 2008 and 2009; Gaston, 2010; Lumina, 2011)
    • ‘The world has changed. The borders between the US and European higher education are now somewhat leaky […]. A European in America is now somehowthinkable!’ (Robertson, 2009)
    • ‘Three states […] examine the Bologna process to determine the forms and extent of its potential in U.S. contexts. Scarcely a year ago, such an effort would have been unthinkable’ (Adelman, 2009: 8)’.
7 a european style of reform for us higher education1
7. A European style of reform for US higher education?
  • Why does the US care?
    • Accountability debate
      • So far limited to general skills (AAC&U; 2007; Gaston, 2010)
      • Especially around for-profits (Douglass, forthcoming)
    • Threat to international supremacy
      • Relationship with intellectual supremacy and attracting talents (Gaston, 2010: 11)
7 a european style of reforms for us higher education
7. A European style of reforms for US higher education?
  • Tuning USA by Lumina foundation (2008)
      • Indiana, Minnesota, Utah and Texas establish study groups
      • Deliberation between administrators, labour market representatives and students
    • Document
      • Degree qualifications profile (2011)
  • But : Low take-up rate
    • No major reform
    • widespread skepticism
    • No further state support
explaining differences
Explaining differences
  • US efforts do not meet the same impact or popularity as the Bologna process
    • 4 years after its launch, the Bologna process had already led to major domestic reforms in France, Germany and Italy.
    • Tuning USA has not had such impact
  • Why is there no Bologna process of the US?
explaining differences1
Explaining differences
  • Deliberative governance
  • Needs-based argument
  • Incentive-based argument
explaining differences2
Explaining differences
  • Deliberative governance
    • Led to some agreement in the US (degree profile)
  • But does not account for differences in
    • Reforms undertaken
    • Differences in the number of participants between Europe and the US
explaining differences3
Explaining differences
  • Needs-based argument should be dismissed

US = 15th out of 34 OECD countries

Source: OECD (2010)

8 explaining differences
8. Explaining differences
  • Concerns on overall quality of US higher education
    • 45% of undergraduates show no learning gain after two years in higher education
    • 35% of undergraduates show no learning gain after four years in higher education (Arum and Roksa, 2011)
8 explaining differences1
8. Explaining differences

‘We’ve had a good run - as the saying goes, but we are no longer at the cutting edge. US higher education can no longer sail on the assumption of world dominance, oblivious to the creative energies, natural intelligence, and hard work of other nations’(Adelman, 2009: 9)

explaining differences4
Explaining differences
  • Incentive-based argument
    • The paradox of autonomy
      • European universities have more incentive to convert to reform processes than US ones due to heavy Government steering
  • Examples
      • Funding structure
        • Block grant vs performance based funding (Salmi and Hauptmann, 2006)
      • Evaluation
        • quality assurance in Europe broader than US accreditation schemes
8 explaining difference
8. Explaining difference
  • In Europe: difference between de jure and de facto autonomy
  • US universities do not have these constraints, so do not have the same incentive to enlist in a widespread reform process
    • A paradox
        • Government steering in Europe is meant to illicit university ‘autonomy’ (Bologna declaration, 1999; Vernon, 2011)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Explain why higher education reform processes are different in the US and Europe
    • ‘Need’ for reform exists
    • But the incentive structures for higher education differ between Europe and the US
      • Paradox of autonomy in higher education in Europe
  • An example of theoretical adjustment
      • Illustrates the limits of deliberative governance and the importance of incentive mechanisms for change
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Further research
    • Have more comparable data for US/Europe
    • How do these change processes in higher education relate to broader socio-economic change?