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Proutist Economic Development Agriculture

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  1. Proutist Economic DevelopmentAgriculture Dr. Michael Towsey  2004 Proutist Universal

  2. Agriculture (1) • Agriculture organised as cooperative industries. • Subsistence agriculture must never be encouraged. • Has to be full costing of inputs, labour, social and environmental costs. • Land holdings should be large enough to obtain economies of scale. • But land should be owned by the farmers via a cooperative. • Cooperative system for agriculture is best. • Building up rurul areas through cooperative system can encourage and act as incentive for some migration from cities to rural areas for employment and a better quality of life. Proutist Universal

  3. Agriculture (2) • Size of an economic holding will depend on climate, fertility and degree of mechanisation. • Adopt sustainable farming techniques. • Adopt traditional farming technology where appropriate. • Use modern equipment so agriculture is not labour intensive. • Do maximum research into agriculture. • Dynamic agricultural sector will reduce dependance on imported pesticides, fertilizer, etc – see Cuba experience. Proutist Universal

  4. Consumer cooperatives Agro-industrial cooperatives Agricultural cooperatives Agrico-industrial cooperatives Agriculture - structure • Vertical integration .... • Develop agrico-industries and agro-industries in balance with agriculture. • Agrico-industries supply inputs to agriculture – fertilizers, tractors, ploughs, etc • Agro-industries process farm output into consumer goods. • Exclude rent-takers from agricultural development – direct links from producer coops to consumer coops. Proutist Universal

  5. Cuban Experience • 1990s food crisis in Cuba - due to collapse of Soviet Union in 1989. • Cuba lost special import privileges in petrol, agricultural equipment, and food. • Serious energy and food shortages. • Malnutrition. • Cuba responded by being the first nation in the world to adopt organic agriculture on a national scale. Proutist Universal


  6. Urban Agriculture in Cuba • Department of Urban Agriculture, Cuba • Three components: organoponicos, garden clubs, seed banks. • Organic farming, intercropping, permaculture. • See also: Green Team with Australian Conservation Foundation • Further information – robin@earthcare.com.au Proutist Universal

  7. Major features of the new Cuban agriculture • Intensively cultivated urban gardens - organoponicos. • In 2002, organoponicos produced 3.2 million tonnes of food. • Traditional farming technique such as intercropping and composting. • Use of non-toxic biopesticides and fertilisers. • Establish cooperative farms. • Opening farmers markets where surplus sold for profit. These so successful that govt periodically supressed them to stop farmers becoming wealthy. • Reference:- http://www.pathtofreedom.com/cuba/greenrevolution/index.shtml Proutist Universal

  8. Teikei in Japan • ‘Teikei’ cooperatives in Japan. • Teikei are agreements set up between groups of farmers and city households where farmers sell organic produce directly to the households and the households give an advance guarantee that they will buy what the farmers produce. • Recently the idea of Teikei has taken off in Europe and the United States where it is known as “Community Supported Agriculture” (CSA). • There are now more than 1000 CSA farms in the United States. Proutist Universal

  9. Special issues in Venzuelan agriculture • Need for immediate expansion and diversification • Self-sufficiency in cereals and dairy products • Irrigation and water management • Reforestation to hold water and prevent mud slides • Wilderness, rainforests vs land clearing, forestry • Land reform Proutist Universal

  10. Venezuelan Land Reform • Venezuelan land reform program has distributed 1.5 million hectares to 130,000 families – 11.5 hectares per family. • Is this an efficient size? Can a family produce a surplus after full cost pricing? • Sarkar has proposed a four phase system for developing cooperative agriculture using privately owned land. • Objective: to allow private land ownership combined with cooperative production. Proutist Universal

  11. 4 Phase conversion • 1st phase - All uneconomic land holdings should be taken over by and vested in cooperative management for the benefit of those who own the land. • 2nd phase - In turn, all landowners should be requested to join the cooperative system.  • 3rd phase - Rational distribution of land and re-determination of ownership. • Address questions such as excessive concentration of wealth after having instilled in people's minds the purpose and practice of cooperatives. • 4th phase - Conflict over land ownership should disappear.  • After land has been vested in cooperatives and ownership of shares determined conflicts amongst landowners and landless rural workers will no longer exist. • Will include a proper policy of distributions of dividends to shareholders and wages to workers. Proutist Universal