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INEQUALITY. How do you make sense of our differences?. How unequal are we?. Median Family Income-2007. U.S. Census. Individuals Living in Poverty - 2007. Whites – 8.2% Blacks – 24.5% Hispanics – 21.5% Asians – 10.2% Native Americans – 25.7% U.S. Population – 12.1%

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Inequality

INEQUALITY

How do you make sense

of our differences?




Individuals living in poverty 2007
Individuals Living in Poverty - 2007

Whites – 8.2%

Blacks – 24.5%

Hispanics – 21.5%

Asians – 10.2%

Native Americans – 25.7%

U.S. Population – 12.1%

Poverty Rate: $21,203 per year for 4 people


The suburbs are wealthy right
The suburbs are wealthy…right?

2004

  • 38.5 percent of poor Americans lived in the suburbs (13.8 million people)

  • 40.6 percent of poor Americans lived in central cities (14.6 million people)

    1970

  • 20.5 percent of nation’s poor lived in the suburbs


Wealth in the u s 2002 per capita
Wealth in the U.S. - 2002(per capita)

  • Whites: with home = $79,400

    without home = $22,566

  • Blacks: with home = $7,500

    without home = $1,166

  • Latino/as: with home = $9,750

    without home = $1,850

  • All Households: with home = $55,000

    without home = $13,473


Inequality

The early

1980s

rocked the

house!


Home ownership and race
Home Ownership and Race

  • White – 75.8%

  • Black – 48.2

  • Asian/PI – 60.1

  • Hispanic – 49.5

  • American Indian – 58.2

  • Other – 59.2

    SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau (2005)


Education graduating from high school 2004
Education (% graduating from High School) - 2004

Whites – 85.5%

Blacks – 72.3%

Latino/as – 52.4%

Asians – 80.4%

Native Americans – 70.9%


2005 gap in graduation rates between urban suburban districts
2005 Gap in Graduation Rates Between Urban-Suburban Districts

Average High School Graduation Rate of fifty largest cities: 53 percent

Average High School Graduation Rate of the suburban districts of those fifty cities: 71 percent


Education graduating from college 2004
Education (% graduating from College) - 2004 Districts

Whites – 27.0%

Blacks – 14.3%

Latino/as – 10.4%

Asians – 44.1%

Native Americans – 11.5%

U.S. Population – 24.4%


Inequality

Explain the root cause(s) Districts

of these differences


Can biology explain the inequality of ancestral groups
Can biology explain the inequality Districtsof ancestral groups?


Inequality

BIOLOGICA DistrictsL: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences


Inequality

BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION DistrictsSome (ancestry) groups “dominate” other groups because they are biologicallymatched for particular social conditions.


Inequality
1. PHYSICAL FEATURES: size, strength, etc. Districts2. GENETIC PSYCHO-COGNITIVE FEATURES: emotional temperament, tenacity, I.Q., etc.


Genetics and race
GENETICS AND RACE Districts

  • 99.99% of human genome is the same in everyone

  • .01% of our genes are reflected in our external appearance

  • 88-90% of genetic differences between people occur within the local populations

  • 10-12% of genetic variations are a result of different populations living in different parts of the world


Inequality

What genetic-based inequality would look like: DistrictsAll members of particular ancestry groups are disposed to some advantage that leads them to have more sociological power (e.g., income, wealth).


Problems
Problems: Districts

1. What constitutes a “racial group”?

2. What is the direct link between social or economic “advantage” and genetics?

- size?

- intellect?

3. Perhaps this can occur to small degrees…


Inequality
AFRICAN SPEED: 16 of the 16 runners the men's and women's 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.


Inequality

Example of a more tangible measure: 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.

We can measure this: we can easily time a sprint and measure legs and torsos.

HOWEVER, there are still sociological variables to account for.


Baseball and race
Baseball and Race 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.

Black Hispanic

Mestizo Hispanic


Example of a less tangible measure
Example of a less tangible measure 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.

  • Major League Baseball is increasingly dominated by players from Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Hockey is dominated by people of European Ancestry

  • Basketball in the U.S. is dominated by African Americans?

  • Rugby is dominated by mentally ill people.


What about other intangible characteristics of people genetic psycho cognitive factors
WHAT ABOUT OTHER INTANGIBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE? 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.Genetic Psycho-Cognitive Factors

  • I.Q.

  • Moral Character

  • Ambition or Personal Drive

  • Contentment

  • Education

  • Income and Wealth


How can evolutionary theory explain the inequality of ancestral groups
How can evolutionary theory explain the inequality 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.of ancestral groups?


Two ways to conceptualize evolutionary theory 1 linear 2 branching bush
Two ways to conceptualize evolutionary theory: 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.1. Linear2. Branching Bush


What do you notice about these images
What do you notice about these images? 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.


Where do these guys fit into the evolutionary map
Where do these guys fit into the evolutionary map? 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.


We re all just monkeys
We’re all just monkeys 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.



Inequality

BIOLOGICA groups?L: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences


Psycho cognitive explanation
Psycho-Cognitive Explanation groups?

Based on the Free Will-Libertarian Position

  • People are always free to think/act other than the way they do

  • Our economic and political circumstances are PRIMARILY shaped by our individual choices


Achievement ideology
ACHIEVEMENT IDEOLOGY groups?

  • Every American has an equal chance of “making it”

  • Every American can succeed if they work hard enough


Psycho cognitive explanation1
Psycho-Cognitive Explanation groups?

Based on the Free Will-Libertarian Position

  • People are always free to think/act other than the way they do

  • Our economic and political circumstances are PRIMARILY shaped by our individual choices


Inequality

BIOLOGICA groups?L: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences


Determinist communitarian position
Determinist-Communitarian Position groups?

  • Material conditions (education, wealth, urban/rural, etc.) shape all aspects of our lives

  • Personal choices only partially shape our socioeconomic circumstances


What about economic and political differences between ancestry groups
What about economic and political differences between ancestry groups?

2007 Median Family Income – U.S. Census



Would you join the kkk
Would YOU join the KKK? ancestry groups?

Might

this child?


Inequality

How do sociologistsexplain cutting behavior? ancestry groups?

determined?

free?



Which explanation do you draw on to answer the question why do some people go to college
Which explanation do you draw on to answer the question: “Why do some people go to college?”

FREE-WILL: people choose the majority of their actions & thoughtsvs.DETERMINISM: people’s actions & thoughts are shaped by factors and forces largely outside of their control


21 24 yr olds graduating from college 2002

FAMILY INCOME “Why do some people go to college?”

Above $85,000 = 51.3%

$61K – 85K = 26.8%

35K – 61K = 12.7%

Below $35K = 6%

21-24 yr. olds Graduating From College -- 2002


Inequality

Nationwide, nine in 10 high school graduates from families earning more than $80,000 a year take college classes by age 24.VS.Six in 10 high school graduates from families earning less than $33,000 a year take college classes by age 24.


Inequality

At the nation's 146 most selective colleges, only 3% of students come from the lowest socioeconomic quarter. By contrast, 74% come from the top quarter.


Inequality

State and local money account for more than 90 percent of all education spending.High poverty districts typically receive less per student when compared to low poverty districts.(Illinois: $2,026 less!)


So how is ancestry related to sat scores
So how is all education spending.ancestryrelated to SAT scores?


Inequality
Which explanation do you draw on to answer the question: “Why do some people go to college while others do not?”

FREE WILL

~ or ~

DETERMINISM


The school sponsored by the penn state chapter of asha free the slaves
The school sponsored by the Penn State Chapter “Why do some people go to college while others do not?” of Asha-Free the Slaves

KhadharawanPhattupur

in Eastern U.P., India


School in nicaragua
School in Nicaragua “Why do some people go to college while others do not?”



Racism three definitions
RACISM: three definitions her sandals” fulfill

1. ACADEMIC: belief that people are superior or inferior on the basis of biological characteristics

2. FOLK: prejudice and acts of discrimination are (often labeled as) racist

3. STRUCTURAL: any system of advantage based on race