slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 17 Mergers and Acquisitions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 17 Mergers and Acquisitions

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 52

Chapter 17 Mergers and Acquisitions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 148 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 17 Mergers and Acquisitions. Mergers and Ac quisitions . Merger – a combination of two or more businesses under one ownership Acquisition or Takeover - one firm acquires the stock of another Acquired firm is the target

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 17 Mergers and Acquisitions' - mead


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
mergers and ac quisitions
Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Merger – a combination of two or more businesses under one ownership
  • Acquisition or Takeover - one firm acquires the stock of another
    • Acquired firm is the target
  • Consolidation - combining firms dissolve forming a new legal entity
mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Relationships
    • Consolidation implies the firms combined willingly
    • Acquisition can be a friendly or hostile takeover
  • Stockholders
    • Must be willing to give up their shares for the offered price
    • Approval from majority necessary for acquisition to be successful
mergers and acquisitions1
Mergers and Acquisitions

Friendly Procedure

  • Target firm's management approves and cooperates with acquiring company
  • Negotiation occurs until agreement is reached
  • Proposal submitted for stockholder vote

Unfriendly Procedure

  • Target firm's management resists, takes defensive measures to stop takeover
  • Acquiring firm makes a tender offer to the target's shareholders
why unfriendly mergers are unfriendly
Why Unfriendly Mergers are Unfriendly
  • A target's management may resist a takeover because:
    • Acquiring firm offered too low a price for the stock
    • Target’s management often loses jobs, power, and influence
economic classification of business combinations
Economic Classification of Business Combinations
  • Vertical Merger
    • Acquiring suppliers of customers
  • Horizontal Merger
    • Merging firms are competitors
  • Congeneric Merger
    • Firms are in related but not competing businesses
  • Conglomerate Merger
    • Firms are in entirely different fields
a further classification
A Further Classification
  • Strategic Merger
    • Merger is undertaken to enhance the acquirer’s business position
  • Financial Merger
    • Merger is undertaken to make money from the merger process
role of investment banks
Role of Investment Banks
  • Help companies issue securities
  • Instrumental in acting as advisors to acquiring companies
  • Assist in establishing a value for target
  • Help acquiring firm raise money for acquisition
  • Advise reluctant targets on defensive measures
the antitrust laws
The Antitrust Laws
  • U.S. is committed to a competitive economy
  • Antitrust laws (enacted 1890 - 1930s) prohibit certain activities that can reduce competitive nature of the economy
  • Mergers have potential to reduce competition
the reasons behind mergers
The Reasons Behind Mergers
  • Synergies
    • Combined performance is expected to be better than the sum of the separate performances
    • Usually cost saving or marketing opportunities
  • Growth
    • External growth through acquisition is faster than internal growth
  • Diversification to Reduce Risk
    • Collection of diverse businesses less risky than a single line
    • Variations in different business lines offset each other
the reasons behind mergers1
The Reasons Behind Mergers
  • Economies of Scale
  • Guaranteed Sources and Markets
  • Acquiring Assets Cheaply
  • Tax Losses
  • Ego and Empire
tax losses
Tax Losses

Combined Businesses pay less total tax.

But IRS will not recognize if sole purpose is to reduce tax.

Rich Inc.

Poor Inc.

Merged

EBT

$2,000

($1,000)

$1,000

Tax (35%)

700

-0-

350

Net Income

$1,400

($1,000)

$650

holding companies
Holding Companies
  • Corporation that owns other corporations
    • Companies owned are subsidiaries
    • Holding company is the parent of the subsidiary
  • Advantages
    • Keeps business operations separate and distinct
    • Can keep liabilities of subsidiaries separate
    • It’s possible to control a subsidiary without owning all of its stock
the history of merger activity in the u s
The History of Merger Activity in the U.S.
  • Wave 1: The Turn of the Century, 1897-1904
    • Horizontal mergers transformed the U.S. into a nation of industrial giants, with some monopolies
  •  Wave 2: The Roaring Twenties, 1916-1929
    • Began with World War I and ended with the stock market crash of 1929
    • Horizontal mergers led to oligopolies
the history of merger activity in the u s1
The History of Merger Activity in the U.S.
  • Wave 3: The Swinging Sixties, 1965-1969
    • Conglomerate mergers - unrelated fields
    • Stock market driven
  • An Important Development During the 1970s
    • Hostile takeovers uncommon prior to 1970s
    • 1974 INCO acquires ESB assisted by respected investment bank Morgan Stanley
    • After that hostile takeovers became acceptable
the history of merger activity in the u s2
The History of Merger Activity in the U.S.
  • Wave 4: Megamergers, 1981 – 1990
    • Very large firms, often industry leaders, merge
  • Wave 5: Globalization, 1992 – 2000
    • Began after 1991 – 1992 recession
    • Large number of international mergers
    • Ended with September 11, 2001
  • Wave 6: Private Equity, 2003 – 2008
    • Private equity groups bought companies for financial reasons
    • Ended with the financial crisis of 2008
mergers since the 1980s
Mergers since the 1980s
  • Mergers since the 1980s are characterized by:
      • Large Size
      • Global
      • Horizontal mergers and antitrust
      • Easy financing
      • Hostility
      • Raiders
      • Defenses
      • Advisors
social economic and political effects
Social, Economic, and Political Effects
  • Large mergers have implications regarding the concentration of power and influence
    • Anti-competitiveness of merging large companies
    • Concentrates economic power in the hands of a few
merger analysis and the price premium
Merger Analysis and the Price Premium
  • What is the most an acquiring company should pay for a target in total and per share?
    • Merger analysis attempts to answer this question
    • Acquiring firm forecasts the target's cash flows and chooses appropriate discount rate
merger analysis and the price premium1
Merger Analysis and the Price Premium
  • Estimating Merger Cash Flows
    • Should be a straightforward cash flow estimation with two exceptions
      • Adjustments for expected synergies
      • Adjustments for reinvestment necessary to support growth
    • Pitfalls of estimating cash flows
      • May not have access to the target's detailed information about future prospects or the past
      • Uncertainty of future
      • Biases of people making estimates
    • Acquirer tends to overestimate target’s value
merger analysis
Merger Analysis
  • Appropriate Discount Rate
    • An acquisition is an equity transaction
    • Use target’s estimated equity rate (CAPM)
  • Value to the Acquirer is the PV of estimated cash flows from target
    • Maximum value makes NPV=0 if viewed in capital budgeting terms
      • Payment for target’s stock is C0 – the initial outlay
  • Maximum Per-share Price is Maximum PV ÷ number shares
merger analysis and the price premium2
Merger Analysis and the Price Premium
  • Price Premium
    • The price offered to target shareholders must be higher than the stock's market price
      • High enough to induce stockholders to sell now
      • Offering price exceeds the current market price by the price premium
the price premium
The Price Premium
  • Effect on market price
    • Certainty of a premium creates a speculative opportunity
    • Investor strategy - buy stock in potential takeover targets to get premium
    • Size of Premium is the Point of negotiations
  • Remember: Insider trading illegal
calculating a price and the problem of terminal values
Calculating a Price and the Problem of Terminal Values
  • Remember
  • In merger analysis, C0 is the amount acquirer will pay for the target’s stock
  • If the merger is to make sense for the acquirer, C0must be no more than the sum of the PVs of all the other Cs
  • The maximum price makes NPV=0
concept connection example 17 1 basic merger analysis
Concept Connection Example 17-1 Basic Merger Analysis

Alpha is interested in acquiring Beta. The appropriate interest rate for the analysis is 12%.

Beta’s cash flows including synergies are estimated for the next three years as follows ($000).

Beta has 12,000 shares of stock outstanding

What is the maximum price Alpha should be willing to pay for a share of Beta’s stock?

concept connection example 17 1 basic merger analysis1
Concept Connection Example 17-1 Basic Merger Analysis

Solution: T he PV of Beta’s cash flows is:

The maximum Alpha should pay for all of Beta’s stock is $531,914.

the maximum per share price Alpha should be willing to pay is:

Maximum acquisition price = $531,914/12,000 = $44.33

merger analysis with terminal values
Merger Analysis with Terminal Values
  • Justifying a merger based on a few years of cash flows can be difficult
  • Acquisition looks better by assuming cash flows after the last year. E.g.
    • Sale of the target at a high price
    • Continuing operating cash flows for a long time or indefinitely
      • Constant
      • Growing
  • Such assumptions are terminal values over
terminal values tvs
Terminal Values (TVs)
  • TVs can overwhelm detailed forecast.
    • Especially an infinite stream of income
  • TV is valued as the PV of a perpetuity starting at end of detailed forecast.
    • TVs are favored by people who want the acquisition for non financial reasons
    • It’s up to Finance (CFO) to keep the assumptions reasonable
  • Terminal Value assumptions often lead to overpaying for an acquisition
paying for the acquisition the junk bond market
Paying for the AcquisitionThe Junk Bond Market
  • Acquiring firm pays the target firm:
    • Cash – have it or raise it
    • Stock in the acquiring firm
    • Debt of the acquiring firm
  • Junk bond market began in the 1980s and has helped firms raise cash to finance many mergers
paying for the acquisition the junk bond market1
Paying for the AcquisitionThe Junk Bond Market
  • Junk bonds are low quality (risky) bonds that pay high yields
  • Prior to 1980s small, risky companies could not borrow via bonds
    • Investment bankers pooled risky bonds into funds creating the junk bond market
    • The idea collapsed in the late 1980s
  • Since 1990’s, high yield debt has reemerged
the capital structure argument to justify high premiums
The Capital Structure Argument to Justify High Premiums
  • Using debt to raise cash for buying out a target's stockholders, makes the firm more leveraged
    • It can be argued that this increases its value
      • See Chapter 14 on capital structure and leverage -
  • The Effect of Paying Too Much
    • An acquiring firm that pays too much for a target transfers value from its shareholders to the target’s shareholders
defensive tactics after a takeover is underway
Defensive Tactics: After a Takeover is Underway
  • Defensive Tactics are things targets do to keep from being acquired
  • Tactics After a Takeover is Under Way
    • Challenge the price
    • Claim an antitrust violation
    • Issue debt and repurchase shares
    • Seek a white knight
    • Greenmail
defensive tactics in anticipation of a takeover
Defensive Tactics: In Anticipation of a Takeover
  • Tactics in Anticipation of a Takeover
    • Staggered Election of Directors
    • Approval by a supermajority
    • Poison pills
    • Golden parachutes
    • Accelerated debt
    • Share rights plans
leveraged buyouts lbos
Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs)
  • Investors take a company private by buying all of its stock largely using borrowed money
    • Then attempts to work down the debt
  • Tends to be risky due to high debt burden
  • Less common today than in the 1980s
proxy fights
Proxy Fights
  • Proxy - a legal document giving one person the right to act for another on a certain issue
  • Proxy fight - opposing groups solicit shareholders’ proxies to elect directors
divestitures
Divestitures
  • A company decides to get rid of a particular business operation
    • Reasons for divestitures
      • A firm needs cash
      • A division may not fit strategically into the firm's long-term plans
      • Poor performance
divestitures1
Divestitures
  • Methods of Divesting Companies
    • Sale for cash and/or securities
    • Spin-off —creates a new company owned by the same stockholders, can trade separately
    • Liquidation —the divested business is closed down and its assets sold
failure and insolvency
Failure and Insolvency
  • Economic failure —a firm is unable to provide adequate return to its stockholders
  • Commercial failure —a business cannot pay its debts (insolvent)
  • A business can be an economic failure without being a commercial failure
bankruptcy concept and objectives
BankruptcyConcept and Objectives
  • Bankruptcy – protects a failing firm from creditors until a resolution is reached to close or continue it
  • Bankruptcy court protects a firm from its creditors and determines whether it should shut down or continue
    • Liquidation
    • Reorganization
bankruptcy procedures reorganization restructuring liquidation
Bankruptcy Procedures—Reorganization, Restructuring, Liquidation

Reorganize

  • Insolvent company perceived as recoverable will reorganize
  • Debt will be restructured and a plan developed to pay creditors as fairly as possible

Liquidate

  • Insolvent company deemed unrecoverable will liquidate
  • Assets will be sold under the court's supervision, with proceeds to pay creditors according to priority
bankruptcy procedures reorganization restructuring liquidation1
Bankruptcy Procedures—Reorganization, Restructuring, Liquidation
  • Bankruptcy petition can be initiated
    • voluntarily by insolvent company or
    • involuntarily by its creditors
  • A firm in bankruptcy is usually allowed to continue operations
    • Trustee oversees the firm’s operations to protect the interests of its creditors
reorganization
Reorganization
  • A plan under which an insolvent firm continues to operate while attempting to pay off its debts
  • Reorganization plans are judged on fairness and feasibility
    • Fairness—claims are satisfied based on priorities
    • Feasibility—likelihood the plan will actually work
  • Plan must be approved by the bankruptcy court, firm's creditors and stockholders
debt restructuring
Debt Restructuring
  • Involves concessions that lower an insolvent firm’s payments so it can continue to operate
  • Can be accomplished in two ways:
    • Extension
    • Composition
  • Creditors have an incentive to compromise because if the firm fails they are likely to receive even less
debt restructuring1
Debt Restructuring
  • Debt-to-equity conversions are a common method of restructuring debt
    • Creditors give up debt claims in return for stock in the company
    • Equity may be worth more in the long run than the debt given up
concept connection example 17 4 debt restructuring in bankruptcy
Concept Connection Example 17-4 Debt Restructuringin Bankruptcy

Adcock has 50,000 shares of common stock outstanding at a book value of $40, pays 10% interest on its debt, and is in the following financial situation

Income and Cash Flow

Capital

EBIT

$200

Debt

$6,000

Interest

600

Equity

2,000

EBT

($400)

Total capital

$8,000

Notice that although the company has positive EBIT, it doesn't earn enough to pay its interest let alone repay principal on schedule. Without help of some kind it will fail shortly. Devise a composition involving a debt for equity conversion that will keep the firm afloat.

Tax

---

Net Income

($400)

Depreciation

200

Principal Repayment

(100)

Cash flows

($300)

concept connection example 17 4 debt restructuring in bankruptcy1
Concept Connection Example 17-4 Debt Restructuring in Bankruptcy

Suppose creditors are willing to convert $3 million in debt to equity at the $40 book value. Requires issuing 75,000 new shares, resulting in the following financial situation.

Income and Cash Flow

Capital

EBIT

$200

Debt

$3,000

Interest

300

Equity

5,000

EBT

($100)

Total capital

$8,000

Tax

---

Notice that the company now has a slightly positive cash flow and can at least theoretically continue in business indefinitely. However, creditors now own a controlling interest in the firm.

Net Income

($100)

Depreciation

200

Principal Repayment

(50)

Cash flows

($50)

liquidation
Liquidation
  • Closing a troubled firm and selling its assets
  • Trustee attempts to recover any unauthorized transfers out of the firm
  • Trustee supervises the sale of the assets, pools and distributes the funds
liquidation1
Liquidation
  • Claimants include
    • Vendors - who sold to the firm on credit
    • Employees – who are owed wages
    • Customers - deposits for merchandise
    • Government - owed taxes
    • Lawyers and the court
    • Stockholders - receive whatever is left
distribution priorities
Distribution Priorities
  • Bankruptcy code contains priorities for the distribution of assets among claimants
  • Priority code payoffs of unsecured claimants:
    • Administrative expenses of the bankruptcy proceedings
    • Certain business expenses incurred after the bankruptcy petition is filed
    • Certain unpaid wages
    • Certain unpaid contributions to employee benefit plans
    • Certain customer deposits
    • Unpaid taxes
    • Unsecured creditors
    • Preferred stockholders
    • Common stockholders
bankruptcy code chapters
Bankruptcy Code Chapters
  • Chapter 7
    • Liquidation
  • Chapter 11
    • Reorganization
  • Notice that Bankruptcy is a Federal court procedure, not state
    • Although some state laws do apply