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New Nuclear Plant Deployment. Gary Fader Director, New Plant Deployment Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. INPO - Our Roots. March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvement INPO’s unique role Self-regulation through peer review .

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New nuclear plant deployment

New Nuclear Plant Deployment

Gary Fader

Director, New Plant Deployment

Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

Inpo our roots
INPO - Our Roots

  • March 28, 1979

  • Three Mile Island – a catalyst for industry improvement

  • INPO’s unique role

    • Self-regulation through peer review

President s commission on the accident at three mile island
President’s Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

  • Set and police standards of excellence

  • Systematic gathering and analysis of operating experience

  • Accredited training

  • Operator training and plant simulators

S mission
’s Mission Island

To promote

the highest levels

of safety and reliability- to promote excellence -in the operation of nuclear electric generating plants

Our workforce 2008
Our Workforce 2008 Island

  • 325 Permanent

  • 65 On Loan

  • 10 On Reverse Loan

  • Budget ~ $90 million

Institute of Island

Nuclear Power


National Academy

for Nuclear Training

World Association

of Nuclear


Cornerstone programs
Cornerstone Programs Island

Analysis &



Training &




Other activities
Other Activities Island

New Plant Development

  • Worldwide benchmarking

    International Program

  • Information exchange

  • Technical support

    Supplier Participant Program

  • Vendor advice

  • Industry issues


Members and participants
Members and Participants Island


International Participants (14)

Brazil Canada France Japan South Korea Mexico Belgium Romania South Africa Spain Taiwan United Kingdom Slovak Republic Slovenia

Supplier Participants (17)

27 U.S. Utility Members who operate nuclear power

plants and 38 Utility Associate Member co-owners



Black & Veatch

Day & Zimmermann

General Electric



Louisiana Energy Services


Nuclear Fuel Services


Sargent & Lundy


The Shaw Group


Washington Group


Wano organization
WANO Organization Island

Coordinating Center Regional Centers






Why nuclear why now
Why Nuclear, Why Now? Island

  • Energy needs

  • Energy independence

  • Environmental considerations

  • Safety & efficiency

  • Licensing confidence

  • Federal financial incentives

Nuclear fuel
Nuclear Fuel Island

  • Uranium primarily mined in:

    • Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Niger, Namibia, others

  • Conversion to UF6

    • US, Canada, France, UK, Russia, others

  • Enrichment

    • France, Germany, Netherlands, UK, US, Russia, others

What happens to used nuclear fuel in the us
What Happens to Used Nuclear Fuel in the US? Island

  • NRC requires contract with DOE for spent fuel removal

  • Currently, ~ 75,000 metric tons is stored at over 100 nuclear power plants in pools or casks.

  • DOE plans to store/bury used fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada - $13.5 B spent

  • Cost of storage

    • All nuclear electricity is taxed at 0.1¢/kW-hr for a disposal fund, which will pay for storage (~$500 million/year, >$22 B not spent)

International Island

  • Countries that reprocess spent fuel:

    • France, UK, Russia, Japan

  • 1% each Uranium and Plutonium (MOX) recovered

  • 1/5 original volume for disposal

  • Remaining waste vitrified, stored

Current situation in u s
Current Situation in U.S. Island

  • Funding reduced for Yucca Mt.

  • What’s needed:

    • Interim centralized storage

    • Technology & business case for reprocessing

    • Licensing of permanent disposal site

  • Bipartisan commission proposed to reassess program

Environmental nu clear
Environmental: Nu Clear Island

“Nuclear power produces 70% of US carbon-free electricity” (Steven Chu at Senate confirmation hearing)

Significant events
Significant Events Island

  • Significant events meet one or more of the following criteria:

    • Degradation of important safety equipment

    • A major transient or unexpected plant response

    • Degradation of fuel integrity, primary coolant pressure boundary, or important associated structures

    • A reactor trip with complications

    • An unplanned release of radioactivity exceeding the technical specifications or regulations

    • Operation outside the technical specification limits

    • Other events considered significant

10 cfr 52 combined licenses early site permits and standard design certifications
10 CFR 52 IslandCombined Licenses, Early Site Permits, and Standard Design Certifications

Verification of Inspection, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

Reactor Construction

Early Site Permit*

Standard DesignCertification*

Combined LicenseReview and Hearing

Reactor Operation

Timelines Island

  • Design certification

    • 2-4 years to prepare

    • 30-48+ months for NRC review

    • 12 months for rulemaking

  • Early Site Permit

    • 12-18 months to prepare

    • 21 month NRC review

    • 12 months for hearing

  • Combined license

    • 12-24 months to prepare

    • 42 month NRC review, assuming DC & ESP are referenced

    • 12 months for hearings

Energy policy act incentives
Energy Policy Act Incentives Island

  • Standby Support Coverage for delays beyond owner’s control

    • $500 million for first two plants,

    • $250 million for next four after a 180 day period

  • Production Tax Credits

    • $18/MWh for 6,000 MW caped at $125 million for a 1,000 MW plant

  • Loan Guarantees

    • Low emission generation up to 80% of total project cost

    • 80/20 Debt-equity structure, with debt underwritten by Federal government

Current statistics
Current Statistics Island

  • Early site permits:

    • 3 issued, 1 under review

  • Design Certifications

    • 2 issued

    • 4 under review (AP-1000 amendment)

  • COL applications:

    • 17 submitted (26 units)

    • 23 total expected (34units)

More statistics
More Statistics Island

  • Long-lead equipment orders:

    • 9 utilities ordered large forgings

    • 6 steel containment shells AP-1000

    • 24 Rx coolant pumps AP-1000

  • EPC Contracts:

    • 4 in place

    • 1 firm commitment to construct

  • Financial incentives:

    • Loan guarantees: 15 applications ($93B vs. $18.5B allocated)

    • 5 eligible per DOE

More statistics1
More Statistics Island

  • Spent fuel disposal

    • 19 contracts with DOE

    • Fuel removal starts 20 years from 1st refueling

    • Removal complete 10 years after shutdown

    • $5M/yr penalty

More statistics global
More Statistics - Global Island

  • NPPs actively under construction:

    • China (10), India (6), Russia (4), Japan (2), France (1), South Korea (8), Taiwan (2), U.S. (1)

  • 106 on order/planned in 24 countries

  • 200 under consideration in 37 countries

Advanced plant designs
Advanced Plant Designs Island

  • Currently under consideration:

    • GE Advanced BWR (Certified May 97)

    • Westinghouse AP-1000 PWR (Certified Jan 06)

    • GE Economic Simplified BWR (Applic. Aug 05)

    • AREVA Evolutionary PWR (Applic. Fall 07)

    • Mitsubishi US Advanced PWR (Applic. Mar 2008)

  • Others:

    • Westinghouse (CE) System 80+ (Certified May 97)

    • Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

    • Westinghouse AP-600 (Certified Dec 99)

General design features
General Design Features Island

  • GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (vessel internal recirculation pumps, 3 trains active safety systems, 1350 MWe), 4 units operating & 1 under construction in Japan, 2 units under construction in Taiwan

  • Westinghouse AP-1000 (conventional primary & secondary PWR systems, passive safety systems, 1100 MWe), 4 units under construction in China

General design features1
General Design Features Island

  • GE Economic Simplified BWR (natural circulation main coolant system, passive safety systems, 1500 MWe)

  • AREVA Evolutionary PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, 1600 MWe), under construction in Finland, France China (2)

General design features2
General Design Features Island

  • Mitsubishi US Advanced PWR (conventional primary & secondary systems, 4 trains active safety systems, advanced accumulator design,1700 MWe), similar plant in licensing in Japan

Control rooms
Control Rooms Island

  • All plants use digital instrumentation & controls for control and protection

  • Some emergency safeguards actions backed up by hard-wired controls

  • All control rooms use flat-panel screens for operator interface, with large screen displays

  • Most plants have automated startup & shutdown

Inpo activities
INPO Activities Island

Provide Info & Experience

  • Operating experience to influence design

  • Past US construction experience

  • International benchmarking for new plant deployment

  • Construction experience exchange process

Inpo activities1
INPO Activities Island

Training and Accreditation

  • Training guidelines

  • Process for Initial Accreditation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry

Current inpo activities
Current INPO Activities Island

  • Assistance

    • Visits to suppliers

      • Design control / quality program

      • Engineering human performance

      • Corrective action

      • Use of operating experience

    • Equipment reliability process

    • Configuration management process

    • Industry meetings to share construction lessons learned

Current inpo activities cont d
Current INPO Activities Island Cont’d

  • Conduct on-site visits to Watts Bar 2

    • Review, Assistance

  • Revise plant review guidelines

  • Conduct construction site visits (later)

    • Quality program implementation

    • Operational programs development and implementation

    • Operational readiness

Key construction lessons
Key Construction Lessons Island

  • COL holder organization is in place and integrated with the engineering, procurement, & construction contractor

  • COL holder oversight (COL holder’s managers continually assess contractor work)

  • QA organizations in place ( procedures, qualified staff), and workers understand the need for quality construction

Key construction lessons1
Key Construction Lessons Island

  • Adequate construction staffing (project managers, QA/QC inspectors, welders, electricians)

  • Maintaining standardization

  • Design essentially complete before construction and construction in compliance with design

  • Questions

    Questions? Island