Cnidarians : Stingers and Reef Builders. Marine Science Mr. Bromwell February 2011. Q: What is a Cnidarian ?. Types of Cnidarians Phylum Cnidaria includes four classes of organisms: Hydrozoans – fire corals, lace corals, hydras, siphonophores Cubozoans – box jellyfish
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Stingers and Reef Builders
Types of Cnidarians
Phylum Cnidaria includes four classes of organisms:
Radially symmetrical animals have body structures arranged around a central axis in a repetitive pattern.
Video of nematocysts firing
Consider the following questions silently for one minute. Then share your answers with a partner for one minute. Be prepared to share your answers with the class.
A ridge of sand, rock, or coral, that lies at or near the surface of a sea or other body of water.
A reef composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), limestone, that is deposited by living organisms, mostly scleractinian corals.
scleractinian – ‘reef building’ corals, often referred to as stony or ‘true’ corals
Grow in a narrow band or fringe along the shores of tropical islands or mainland.
Occur on rocky bottoms or soft bottoms with rocky outcrops
Especially vulnerable to freshwater runoff, sediments, and human disturbance
Occur along coastlines but farther from shore than fringing reefs (up to 60 miles).
Separated from the shore by a relatively deep lagoon.
Extent and morphology of coral growth depends on the location on the reef.
Ring reef of islands or sand cays surrounding a central lagoon.
Occur when a fringing reef is left around a volcanic island that has subsided.
Often in open ocean away from harmful lithogenic effects and most human disturbance.
A general term applied to many members of the Phylum Cnidaria and Class Anthozoa that produce some type of hard skeleton and which have lost a medusa generation.
Major coral reef sites are seen as red dots on this world map. Most of the reefs, with a few exceptions are found in tropical and semitropical waters, between 30° north and 30° south latitudes.
In this case, a mutualism (+/+)
Only corals with zooxanthellae build reefs.
You have 10 minutes to research the answer to these questions. Record your answer and the source.
What percentage of the world’s reefs are affected by bleaching?
Where in the world is
coral bleaching having the most dramatic impact?
First scientific researcher to dive in the Phoenix Islands in the nation of Kiribati.
Helped to establish the Phoenix Islands Protected Area in the central Pacific.
Used the principle of a “reverse fishing” license to convince the Kiribati government to forgo revenues from the sale of fishing licenses in PIPA.
Coral bleaching anecdote – 13:21 to 14:50
Goggles and apron are required!
Amit. Snorkelers exploring the coral reef at Green island. 207. Photograph. Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Flickr. Amit (Sydney), 1 Oct. 2007. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/karmakars/1471351532/>.
Birdsnest.jpg. Photograph. Tank of the Month April 2004. Reefkeeping. Web. 14 Feb. 2011. <http://reefkeeping.com/issues/2004-04/totm/index.php>.
Castro, Peter, and Michael E. Huber. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005. Print.
Cnidarian. Digital image. Britannica. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/122750/66029/Cnidarian-body-forms>.
Coral reef cross section. Digital image. National Ocean Service Education. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association, 25 Mar. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 201. <http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/media/supp_coral04b.html>.
Diploblastic. Digital image. Ch 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity. 21 Dec. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.nicertutor.com/doc/class/bio1903/Locked/media/ch32/diploblastic.html>.
Doubilet, David. Box jellyfish. Photograph. National Geographic. 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/box-jellyfish/>.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., and G. J. Smith. "The Effect of Sudden Changes in Temperature, Light and Salinity on the Population-density and Export of Zooxanthellae from the Reef Corals StylophoraPistillata and SeriatoporaHystrix." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 129 (1989): 279-303. Coral Reef Ecosystems Lab. Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland. Web. 08 Mar. 2010. <http://www.coralreefecosystems.org/index.php?page=researchgroup&groupid=2>.
Jellyfish. Photograph. Wild Animals A to Z. Animal Planet, 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://animal.discovery.com/invertebrates/jellyfish/>.
"NOAA's Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS) - What are Coral Reefs." NOAA Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS) Home Page. 23 Feb. 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/>.
Nollette, Elyce, Eric Florio, Stevie Lewis, and Brendan Gallagher. "Vulnerability of Southern African Coastline (vulnerability/adaptation)." Google Sites - Free Websites and Wikis. Dickinson College, 30 Apr. 2009. Web. 08 Mar. 2010. <http://sites.google.com/site/vulnerabilityadaptation/elyce>.
O.S.F./Animals Animals—Earth Scenes. Portugeuse man-o-war. Photograph. National Geographic. 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/portuguese-man-of-war/>.
"Reef." Def. 1. MacMillian Dictionary for Students. 1984. Print.
Santos, Scott R. Zooxanthellae. Photograph. Ocean World. Jason Education Project of Texas A&M University, 2004. Web. 2 Mar. 2010. <http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral3.htm>.
Sea anemone. Photograph. Fel2005 Conference Photos: Tours & Sightseeing. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://epaper.kek.jp/f05/PHOTOS/5_TOURS/5_004.JPG>.
"Types of Coral Reefs: Atolls, Barrier Reefs, and Fringing Reefs." Coral Reef Facts and Information: Your Online Guide to Coral Reefs. 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.coral-reef-info.com/types-of-coral-reefs.html>.
University of Miami. "Andrew C. Baker | The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami." | The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami. 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2011. <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/people/faculty-index/?p=andrew-c-baker>.