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A Healthy Living Style . Mike Ramsey Exercise Science. Health and Fitness Trends. World Health Organization Definition of Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease. Dimensions of Health.

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A healthy living style

A Healthy Living Style

Mike Ramsey

Exercise Science

Health and fitness trends
Health and Fitness Trends

World Health Organization Definition of Health:

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease.

Dimensions of health
Dimensions of Health

  • Physical Health: absence of disease and disability; ability to accomplish daily tasks and activities without undue fatigue

  • Mental Health: absence of mental disorders; ability to meet daily challenges and social interactions without undue mental or emotional problems

  • Social Health: ability to interact effectively with other people and the social environment

The health continuum
The Health Continuum

A continuum exists between optimal health and death. Disease exists between these opposite ends of the spectrum.

Major causes of death in 1900 and 2000
Major causes of Death in 1900 and 2000

  • In 1900, over 30% of deaths were due to infectious diseases

  • In 1900, heart disease accounted for 6.2% of all deaths

  • In 2000, a much smaller percent of deaths (pneumonia/flu: 3.9%) are due to infectious diseases

  • In 2000, heart disease accounted for 31% of all deaths


  • Many of the leading causes of death are related to lifestyle

  • Thus, these causes of death are preventable with lifestyle changes

  • Lifestyle changes include:

    • Physical Activity

    • Diet

    • Sleep

    • Stress reduction

What is physical activity
What is physical activity?

Physical activity: bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles

Exercise: physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive, in the sense that improvement or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective

Conclusions from surgeon general s report
Conclusions from Surgeon General’s Report

  • People of all ages, male and female, benefit from physical activity.

  • People can obtain significant health benefits by including moderate amounts of physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week.

  • Physical activity reduces the risk of premature mortality in general, and of coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus.

  • More than 60% of Americans are not physically active. 25% of all adults are not active at all.

  • Nearly half of American youths 12-21 years of age are not vigorously active on a regular basis.

Health benefits vs physical fitness
Health Benefits vs. Physical Fitness

Physical fitness standards require a more vigorous exercise program.

Health benefits can be obtained with consistent, but much less vigorous or structured physical activity.

Historical development
Historical Development

  • World War II: evaluation of draftees indicated that schools were not providing adequate physical fitness training

  • 1953: 57% of US schoolchildren failed basic tests of strength of key muscle groups

  • Post World War II: heart disease reached epic proportions

  • 1968: Kenneth Cooper, Aerobics

  • 1970’s: Running movement (Shorter, Sheehan, Fixx)

  • 1980’s: Health clubs and corporate fitness movement

Important points from healthy people 2010
Important Points from Healthy People 2010

  • Personal responsibility: individuals need to be more health conscious

  • Benefits for all people: health promotion (education regarding benefits of physical activity) extended to all (age, education, socioeconomic status)

  • Emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention: shift from treatment to preventive techniques (regular physical activity)

Healthy people 2000 objectives
Healthy People 2000 Objectives

  • Reduce the proportion of adults to 20% that engage in no leisure-time physical activity.

  • Increase to at least 30% the proportion of adults who engage regularly in moderate physical activity for 30 min/day.

  • Increase to at least 30% the proportion of adults who engage in vigorous physical activity for 3 or more days/week for 20 min or more per session.

  • Increase to 30% the proportion of adults who perform activities that enhance and maintain muscular strength and endurance.

  • Increase to 43% the proportion of adults who perform activities that enhance and maintain flexibility.

Strategies for healthy living
Strategies for Healthy Living

  • Time Management

  • Physical Activity

  • Nutrition

  • Stress Reduction

Time management
Time Management

  • Schedule it and stick to it

    • Study time, work time, exercise, eat, sleep, tv/computer, fun

  • Develop and defeat deadlines

  • Handle tough tasks at your personal prime time

  • Learn to say NO!!

  • Work during work hours

  • Be decisive

  • Schedule rewards

The health benefits of exercise

Reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and hypertension.

Lower blood pressure

Increase HDL cholesterol and lower LDL cholesterol

Greater cardiac output – able to deliver more blood to tissue.

Longevity – greater life expectancy

Increase metabolism

Help ward off infection

Control weight- lower body fat content

Reduces risk of certain types of cancer

Strengthen bones (reduces risk for osteoporosis)

Psychological well-being

Learn better and stay mentally alert longer

The Health Benefits of Exercise

The fitness triangle
The Fitness Triangle

  • Physical fitness – is the measure of how efficiently your body works

  • Three major components:

    • Muscular Strength and Endurance – the extent to which an individual is capable of exerting force in one effort or repeated efforts.

    • Flexibility – the range of movement an individual can achieve around a joint or group of joints

    • Cardiovascular Endurance – The ability to exercise vigorously at a sustained level for a period of time.

Muscular strength
Muscular Strength

  • Strength is needed for daily activities

  • Strength starts to decline between 25-40 years

    Dependent on:

    • Loss of muscle mass: limits ability to contract with force

    • Changes in muscle fiber: less contractile tissue

  • Leads to instability of joints, lack of balance, difficulty with daily tasks.

  • One of most important factors of physical fitness for elderly populations

Components of a strength training program
Components of a Strength Training Program

  • Mode – Type of activity, contractions

    • Isometric: no change in length of muscle or joint angle

    • Isokinetic: contracts through range of motion with constant velocity

    • Isotonic: length of muscle and joint angle changes

  • Frequency

    • 3 days a week to see improvement

    • Allow 48 hours rest between training of a muscle group if you train to failure

  • Rest between sets

    • 45 sec – 1 min (intense lifting >, endurance <)

A healthy living style

  • Volume: amount of weight lifted

    • Reps X weight

  • Intensity: average weight lifted

    • Weight / reps

  • Both volume and intensity should be varied through out your program

  • Recommendations:

    • Strength: 3-6 reps @ 80 – 100% of 1RM; 3-5 sets

    • Balance: 8-12 reps @ 70-90% of 1Rm; 3 sets

    • Endurance: 10-20 reps @ 60-80% of 1RM; 3 sets


  • Maintained through activity and stretching

  • Limits participation in physical activities that require bending, turning, reaching

    • Ballistic- quick actions, not recommended outside of sport-specific training

    • Static – slow, sustained

      • Hold stretch to the point of tightness, not pain

      • Hold between 15-30 seconds, increase time as you become more flexible

      • Repeat each stretch 2-4 times at least 3 days/week

Cardiovascular endurance
Cardiovascular Endurance

  • Ability to do continuous, large muscle group exercises for an extended period of time (aerobic)

  • VO2max: The maximum amount of O2 that we can use, measure of aerobic power

    • VO2 = Heart rate * stroke volume * AVO2diff

Cardiovascular endurance1
Cardiovascular Endurance

  • Cardiac Output – the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute

    • Cardiac output = Heart rate X stroke volume

    • Stroke volume – the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat (50 to 75 ml)

  • Maximum Cardiac Output

    • 20 to 40 l/min

  • Target Heart Rate

    • TH = 60% (MHR – RHR) + RHR

    • TH = 90% (MHR – RHR) + RHR

Components of aerobic exercise prescription
Components of Aerobic Exercise Prescription

  • Mode – type of exercise being performed

    • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic

    • Enjoyable

    • Convenience

    • Risk of injury

    • Examples…

  • Frequency – how often you exercise (3-5 days per week)

A healthy living style

  • Intensity- how hard you work

    • Should be equal or greater than 50% of max aerobic capacity

    • Heart rate should be 60 – 90% of MHR

    • Begin towards the lower limit and work your way up

  • Duration – how long you exercise

    • Should be between 20 – 60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity.

Acsm guidelines
ACSM Guidelines

  • Frequency: 3 to 5 days/week

  • Duration: 20 to 60 min/day

  • Intensity: 50% to 90% of aerobic capacity (VO2max)

  • Mode: large muscle groups, continuous, aerobic capacity

  • Resistance training and flexibility

Designing your own program
Designing Your Own Program

  • Safety – proper attire, good shoes, know yourself.

  • Warm-up – begin workout with short warm-up. Few minutes of walking and light calisthenics.

  • Activity – use large muscle groups, choose enjoyable activities

  • Cool-down – slow things down gradually. Five minutes of slow walking then stretch

  • Progressions – start slow and work your way up. Increase frequency, then duration, and then intensity.

Sticking to a program
Sticking to a Program

  • Choose the right activity for you (mode)

    • Become more active with everyday activities

  • Set-up a schedule

  • Set goals

  • Test and track progress

  • Join a group

  • Personal Trainers and Aerobics

  • Make a contract with yourself

  • Rewards

    • Massage

    • Piggy bank

    • Shoes/bike/clothes/time off (sitter/spouse)

Brief review of nutrients
Brief Review of Nutrients

  • Calories (2000-2500/day for 145 to 175lb moderate activity level)

    • Measure of energy that food provides

  • Food is made up of two categories of nutrients

    • Macronutrients: source of calories, makes up the 99% of the food we eat.

    • Micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals

Brief review of nutrients1
Brief Review of Nutrients

  • Macronutrients

    • Carbohydrates (60% of you caloric intake)

      • Simple:Empty calories but yummy

      • Complex: Starches and Fiber

    • Fats (28 to 30%)

      • Saturated and Unsaturated

      • Cholesterol: The good, the bad, and the ugly.

    • Protein (10 to 12%)

      • Amino Acids… “You complete me.”

    • Water (6 to 8 glasses/day)

Brief review of nutrients2
Brief Review of Nutrients

  • Micronutrients

    • Vitamins and minerals

  • Used for

    • Bone growth: Ca, Vit. D

    • Muscle contraction: Ca

    • Cell membrane potential: Na, K

    • Water balance: Na

    • Metabolism: B complex

    • Antioxidents: Selenium, Vit. C


  • Caloric Intake vs. Expenditure

    • Intake: what you eat

    • Expenditure: what you use

      • From our deepest sleep to the hardest run

      • We are always using calories

        • Proof: heat

  • Current Weight = Intake – Expenditure

    • So how do we lose weight????

Caloric intake guidelines
Caloric Intake Guidelines

  • Daily Caloric Intake: Body weight x 10 = resting metabolic rate

  • Add your physical activity:

    • sedentary: 20-30%

    • moderately active: 40-50% (2-4 exercise sessions per wk)

    • very active: 60-80% (5 or more exercise sessions per wk)

  • Example:>140 (lbs.) x 10 = 14001400 x .4 (40% for moderately active) = 5601400 + 560 = 1960 calories/day for weight maintenance

  • To lose weight, subtract 500 calories.1960 - 500 = 1460 calories/day for weight loss

  • NOTE: These are only guidelines for caloric intake. Your daily caloric needs may be more or less depending on your activity level, body composition, and present health status

Other healthy hints
Other Healthy Hints

  • Choose a diet moderate in sugars

  • Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium

  • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation

  • Be aware of moods/emotion/habits and food

  • Change “comfort foods”

Healthy snacking
Healthy Snacking

  • Consider snacks as miniature meals

    • If not you can easily over do it

  • Compensate for traditional snack foods

    • Fruit, yogurt…

  • Avoid overeating in a hurry

    • 2 health snacks

  • Treat yourself occasionally

    • Little culinary vacation

Eating styles
Eating Styles


  • Vegan – only plant sources

  • Lacto-vegetarians – plant and dairy products

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians – plant, dairy, and eggs.

  • Semi-vegetarians – no red meat

    Nutritional Supplements

  • Should you take vitamins and minerals?

  • Try to get from eating a balanced diet

    Fast Foods and Eating Out

  • When ordering out: Think small, hold the toppings, do not get fried foods, watch the drinks and desserts

Four basic sources of stress
Four Basic Sources of Stress

  • Physical stressors

    • Hunger, thirst, lack of sleep, illness, injury, temporary disability

  • Environmental

    • Polluted air and water, extremes in temperature, noise, overcrowding, lack of privacy

  • Psychological

    • Testing, failure (academic), marriage, boredom, guilt, frustration, anger, worry

  • Social

    • Racial and religious prejudice, sexual harassment, unemployment

Positive and negative stress
Positive and Negative Stress

  • Distress – the type of stress that brings about negative mental or physical responses.

  • Burnout – the emotional exhaustion caused by the stresses of work and other responsibilities.

  • Eustress – the type of stress that is a healthy part of daily living; it can result in the ability to relax and enjoy feelings of peacefulness and calm.

  • Type A Personality – a person who is excessively competitive, aggressive, driven, and impatient.

  • Type B Personality – a person who is more relaxed and patient.

The impact of stress on health
The Impact of Stress on Health

  • Muscular: Headaches, back, neck pain

  • Cardiovascular: clammy hands, increased heart rate, palpitations, blood pressure, chest pain

  • Mental: poor concentration, irritable, restless, reduced self-esteem

  • Emotional: depression, poor sleep, appetite, fatigue, nervous habits

  • Gastrointestinal: upset stomach, butterflies, nausea, dry mouth, urge to urinate, rash or acne

  • Multiple Systems: persistent mild illnesses, loss of sex drive

Stressors of everyday living
Stressors of Everyday Living

  • Life changes

    • Going to college

    • Leaving home

  • Career changes

  • Family changes

  • Cultural differences

Adapting to stress
Adapting to Stress

Coping is adaptation to stress

Ways of coping:

  • Improving time management

    • Find out where you are wasting time

    • Long and short term goals

    • Learn to say “no”

  • Physical Activity

    • Utilizes “fight or flight” syndrome in positive way

    • Produces a relaxing effect

    • Body becomes resistant to stressor hormones

Adapting to stress1
Adapting to Stress

  • Acceptance:

    • Dealing with ambiguity (uncertainty) is a part of everyday life

    • Being able to say “oh well” in a situation that is out of your control

      • Traffic jam

      • Other peoples words or action

      • Past events

A healthy living style

  • Relaxation Techniques

    • Progressive relaxation: tense muscles then relax, deep breaths

    • Deep breathing relaxation

    • Imagery relaxation: find your “happy place”

Thank you
Thank You

  • Mike Ramsey

  • Assistant Professor, Exercise Science

  • Office: 116E “Mini Dome”

  • 439-4375

  • ramseym@etsu.edu

  • http://faculty.etsu.edu/ramseym/default.htm