Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CDHS PowerPoint Presentation

CDHS

146 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

CDHS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. CDHS Social Capital and Adolescent Development Participant Guide [k]Key PointJonathan Trinidad, M.A., Ph.D. CandidateDepartment of SociologyNew York State University at BuffaloMichael Farrell, Ph.D., Department ChairDepartment of SociologyNew York State University at Buffalo © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  2. Table of Contents Keeping it organized [k]Key Point[1]Introduction • [2] Human capital • [3] Social capital • [4]Comparing human and social capital • [5] Adolescent development • [6]Research examples • [7] Case scenarios • [8] Cultural capital © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  3. 1 Introduction Getting started [k]Key PointUsing this resource manual © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  4. ♫NotesUsing this Resource ManualMore than one way [k]Key PointTo maximize the utility of this presentation, what are some of the things you should keep in mind as you listen? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  5. 2 Human Capital Knowledge and skills [k]Key PointMultiple forms of capital • Defining human capital • Alternative definitions of human capital • Measuring human capital • Comparing human capital • Moving on © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  6. ♫NotesMultiple Forms of CapitalDistinguishing between forms [k]Key PointThe word, “capital,” is used repeatedly in current research. As Schuller reports, “the list of different types of capital is growing fast: to natural, physical and financial capitals are added organizational, intellectual, environmental and many more.” Schuller (90) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  7. [k]Key PointIn this handbookwe distinguish between human and social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  8. ♫NotesDefining Human CapitalYou and the economy [d]definitionHuman capital is defied as, “the knowledge, skills, competences and other attributes embodied in individuals that are relevant to economic activity.”Schuller (90) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  9. ♫NotesAlternate Definitions of Human CapitalBecause it helps to say it another way [d]definitionThere are many ways to define human capital. What follows is a collection of important citations. Some may make more sense to you than others. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  10. ♫NotesMeasuring Human CapitalHow much do I have? [k]Key PointThe basic measure of human capital is years of schooling and qualifications achieved such as degrees and certifications. Schuller (2001:98) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  11. ☻DiscussionComparing Human CapitalWho has it? [k]Key PointHuman capital varies between individuals. Some people are more educated. Some people have better skills. Whether we know it or not, we frequently make judgments about others’ human capital. Consider the following Example. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  12. ? Question You are the owner of corner store and are in need of a new cashier for the evening shift. The job involves working alone. There are three applicants. Who do you hire? What factors do you consider? Agatha is 16 and currently in high school. She is a C+ student and does not plan on attending college when she graduates. If hired, this would be her first job. Mark is 19 and sophomore in college. He is B- student majoring in business administration. Last summer he worked as a stock boy for a local hardware store. Jane is 26 and is in her final year of law school. She has an extensive résumé including several internships at prestige law firms. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  13. 3 Social Capital The network [k]Key PointDefining social capital• A second definition of social capital • Alternative definitions of social capital • Building social capital • Mapping social capital • Measuring social capital • The importance of civic engagements • Why does social capital work? • Information flow • Illustrating information flow • Influence • Illustrating Influence • Social credentials • Illustrating social credentials • Reinforcing identity • Illustrating reinforcing identity © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  14. ♫NotesDefining Social CapitalAccording to Coleman [d]Definition Two definitions of social capital frequently appear in the research. The first definition was popularized by Coleman. According to Coleman, social capital of the family is strength of the relationships between children and parents.Coleman (1988); Mitchell (1994:653); Qian & Blair (1999:606) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  15. [d]Definition“A child may have a talented and highly educated parent and thus be genetically endowed with great potential…, but interactions with that parent are needed to convey encouragementand expectations…” Bianchi & Robinson (1997:333) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  16. ♫NotesA Second Definition of Human CapitalAccording to Lin [d]DefinitionSocial capital is also defined as, aninvestment in social relations with expected returns in the marketplace.Lin (2001:19) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  17. ♫NotesBuilding Social CapitalThe marketplace [k]Key PointAccording to Lin, we build social capital by investing relationships for returns in the marketplace. But what exactly is the marketplace? Traditionally, we think of it as economic sector, but the marketplace also includes the political, occupational and community sectors.Lin (2001:19) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  18. ☻ DiscussionMapping Social CapitalReal examples of social capital [k]Key PointIn the same way material resources travel between people, so too does social capital. As such, we can build a “road map” outlining the flow of resources. The first step in mapping social capital is to know the members of your social network and the resources they provide.Lin (2001:20) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  19. ? Question Make a list or a diagram mapping out your social network. What social relations are important to you? Why? What resources are made available because of your network? What resources do you provide in your network? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  20. ♫NotesMeasuring Social CapitalHow much do I have? [k]Key PointUnlike human capital which is relatively easy to measure (i.e. years of education, income), measuring social capital is more abstract. The most popular measurements include attitudes, values and civic engagements. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  21. ♫NotesThe Importance of Civic EngagementsWhy social capital works [k]Key PointSocial capital works because of civic engagements. Volunteer associations such as churches, block clubs, political parties, and special interest groups increase the size and depth of one’s network which in turn increases one’s social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  22. ♫NotesWhy Does Social Capital Work?Four reasons [k]Key PointLike economic capital, social capital improves the outcome of our actions. Lin names four broad benefits of social capital which include information, influence, social credentials, and reinforcement. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  23. ♫NotesInformation FlowWhy social capital works: Reason 1 [k]Key PointSocial capital works because it facilitates the flow of information. Being ideally located in a network makes you better informed to market needs. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  24. ? Question To demonstrate information flow, describe a situation where you were granted information or an opportunity because of your social capital. In other words, why was the opportunity available to you and not others? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  25. ☻DiscussionIllustrating Information FlowHow does information travel? [k]Key PointIt’s impossible for one person to know everything. Consequently, individuals often use their networks to access missing information. “If I don’t know, I may know someone who does.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  26. ♫NotesInfluenceWhy social capital works: Reason 2 [k]Key PointSocial capital works when members of our network exert their influence on important actors for someone else’s benefit. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  27. ☻DiscussionIllustrating InfluencePut in a good word for me [k]Key PointWe all know what it’s like to have a friend exert their influence for our benefit. We all know what it’s like to exert our influence for a friend’s benefit. Let’s talk about it. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  28. ? Question Describe a situation when you used your good standing to help a friend. Or, describe a situation when a friend used their good standing to help you. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  29. ♫NotesSocial CredentialsWhy social capital works: Reason 3 [k]Key PointSocial capital works because others are aware of your social credentials or your accessibility to resources through social networks. Others see you as a gatekeeper to specific resources. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  30. ☻DiscussionIllustrating Social CredentialsI not only see you, I see what you can do for me [k]Key PointSocial credentials is an abstract concept. To better understand how social capital relies on social credentials, let’s consider how financial capital relies on financial credits. Time for an analogy. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  31. ? Question What would happen if individuals failed to recognize paper money as a financial credit? How can we use this analogy to explain social credentials and social capital? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  32. ♫NotesReinforcing IdentityWhy social capital works: Reason 4 [k]Key PointSocial credentials is an abstract concept. To better understand how social capital relies on social credentials, let’s consider how financial capital relies on financial credits. Time for an analogy. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  33. ☻DiscussionIllustrating Reinforcing IdentityYou are worthy [k]Key PointDoctors, by virtue of their profession, are entitled to a certain level of income.But what else are they entitled to? Let’s consider how identities merit not only financial capital, but also social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  34. ? Question Doctors and cashiers are both entitled to financial capital. The type and degree is determined by the societal recognition of the identity. Doctors are held to higher esteem, thus they get paid more. Explain why social capital differs between a doctor and cashier?

  35. 4 Comparing Human and Social Capital Key Differences [k]Key PointThe fundamental difference • What can you do for others • One versus many © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  36. ♫NotesThe Fundamental DifferenceIn simplest terms [k]Key PointThe key difference between human and social capital is that human capital focuses on individual agents versus social capital which focuses on relationships between agents and the networks they form. Schuller (2001:97) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  37. [k]Key PointThe differences between human and social capital have been explained numerous ways. Some of the following references may make more sense to you than others. [q]Quote“In order to create well-being in children, financial and human capital must be accompanied by social relationships that allow resources to be transmitted to and used by children.”Teachman et al. (1997:1356) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  38. ☻DiscussionWhat Can You Do For Others?A simple illustration [k]Key PointSchuller sums it best when he states, “individuals and their human capital are not discrete entities that exist separately form the rest of other social units.” Schuller (98) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  39. ? Question Bob is a doctor. What is Bob’s human capital? Explain how his human capital can be social capital to his friends. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  40. ☻DiscussionOne Versus ManyStrength in numbers [k]Key PointAnother way to illustrate the difference between human and social capital is by comparing the resources of one versus the resources of many. Often times, a group of people can complete a task better and more efficient than one person alone. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  41. ? Question Describe a time when a team of people were able to accomplish a goal no one person could do alone. What kind of resources did you provide to the team? What kind of resources did your co-workers provide? Explain in your own words how this is an example of social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  42. 5 Adolescent Development How does social capital enhance the young adult transition? [k]Key PointThe young adult transition • The rise of the young adult transition • Not all transitions are equal • Rates of success • Social capital and the transition © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  43. ♫NotesThe Young Adult TransitionMoving beyond adolescence [k]Key PointThe period of life between adolescence and adulthood has often been referred to as the young adult transition. It is a particularly volatile time for development whereby individuals learn to balance freedom and responsibility. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  44. ♫NotesThe Rise of the Young Adult TransitionThe basics [k]Key PointAs was described earlier, the period of life between adolescence and adulthood has often been referred to as the Young Adult Transition. Let’s consider how this transitional stage developed. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  45. [k]KeyPointCumulatively, these factors – Continued education, non-family living, and delay of marriage and childbirth – result in a prolonged period of transition from child to adult. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  46. ☻DiscussionNot All Transitions Are EqualWhat makes for a successful transition into adulthood? [k]Key PointThe young adult transition is a difficult period of life for all adolescents, but not all adolescents experience the same degree of difficulty.What makes the transition easier or more difficult for some? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  47. ? Question From your experiences in the field, what factors make the adolescent experience more difficult? What factors make it easier? Are there any variables that are a good indicator of how difficult the transition will be? For example, how do family income and/or size affect adolescent development? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  48. ♫NotesRates of SuccessSuccessful transition varies by race [k]Key PointResearch suggests the ease and success of the young adult transition varies by race and ethnicity. Hardships during adolescent development may account for future socio-economic status discrepancies along racial and ethnic lines as young people transition into paid work. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  49. [k]Key PointDemographic research done in the last decade and a half indicates that African Americans are more likely than whites to come through the young adult transition in ways that can negatively impact later life development. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

  50. ♫NotesSocial Capital and the TransitionEnhancing the transition [k]Key PointTo explain the racial and ethnic differences in the young adult transition, some scholars have pointed to social capital. Social capital, it is argued, can affect the timing and preparedness of adolescents transitioning into adulthood. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group