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Chapter 2, part 2

Chapter 2, part 2

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Chapter 2, part 2

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  1. Chapter 2, part 2 The Chemical Level of Organization

  2. SECTION 2-4Organic Compounds

  3. Organic compounds • Organic compounds generally include • Carbon • Hydrogen • and sometimes Oxygen

  4. Organic compounds • Four major classes of organic compounds are • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids • High energy compounds are also organic compounds

  5. Carbohydrates • Important energy source for metabolism • Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides • Di- and polysaccharides formed from monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis Figure 2.10c

  6. Figure 2.11 The Formation and Breakdown of Complex Sugars PLAY Animation: The formation and breakdown of complex sugars Figure 2.11

  7. Figure 2.12 The Structure of a Polysaccharide Figure 2.12

  8. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes • Five classes: • Fatty acids • Eicosanoids • Glycerides • Steroids • Phospholipids • Glycolipids

  9. Figure 2.13 Fatty acids Figure 2.13

  10. Figure 2.15 Triglyceride Formation • Triglycerides = three fatty acids attached by dehydration synthesis to one molecule of glycerol Figure 2.15

  11. Steroids • Are involved in cell membrane structure • Include sex hormones and hormones regulating metabolism • Are important in lipid digestion

  12. Figure 2.16 Steroids Figure 2.16

  13. Proteins perform many vital functions in the body. The six important types are: • Structural proteins • Contractile proteins • Transport proteins • Enzymes • Buffering proteins • Antibodies

  14. Proteins are chains of amino acids • Amino acids contain an amino group, a carboxylic group and a radical group • Polypeptides are linear sequences of amino acids held together by peptide bonds

  15. Figure 2.18 Amino Acids Figure 2.18

  16. Figure 2.19 Peptide Bonds Figure 2.19

  17. The four levels of protein structure are: • Primary structure (amino acids sequence) • Secondary structure (amino acid interactions) • Tertiary structure (complex folding) • Quaternary structure (protein complexes)

  18. Figure 2.20 Protein Structure Figure 2.20

  19. Enzyme reactions • Reactants (substrate) interact to yield a product by binding to the active site of the enzyme • Cofactors must bond to the enzyme before substrate binding can occur • Coenzymes are organic cofactors commonly derived from vitamins

  20. Figure 2.21 A simplified view of enzyme structure and function PLAY Animation: Enzyme structure and function Figure 2.21

  21. The shape of a protein determines its function • Proteins pushed outside their optimal temperature and pH range become temporarily or permanently denatured and will cease to function

  22. Nucleic acids • Store and process information at the molecular level • Made of purines and pyrimidines • DNA and RNA

  23. Figure 2.22 Purines and Pyrimidines Figure 2.22

  24. Figure 2.23 Nucleic Acids: RNA and DNA Figure 2.23

  25. Nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides • Nucleotides are composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base • Sugar = deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA) • DNA Bases = adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine • RNA bases = adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine

  26. High energy compounds store cellular energy in high energy bonds • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • Made by adding a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) • Process referred to as phosphorylation

  27. SECTION 2-5Chemicals and Cells

  28. Biochemical compounds form functional units called cells • Metabolic turnover allows cells to change and to adapt to changes in their environment

  29. You should now be familiar with: • Atoms and how they combine to form compounds. • Chemical reactions and enzymes. • Organic and inorganic compounds. • Water, pH, and buffers. • The structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and high energy compounds.