Erica Ellsworth, MA Eellsworth@kaplan.edu School of Criminal Justice, Composition. Motivating Adult Learners. Purpose.
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Erica Ellsworth, MAEellsworth@kaplan.edu School of Criminal Justice, Composition Motivating Adult Learners
Purpose • Much has been written on motivation and education. What really works in motivating adult learners specifically in distance education? Using the ARCS model by Dr. John Keller, I will explore design principles that encourage motivation in the online environment.
Objectives • Knowles and Andragogy • Adult learners are different from children and that difference must be taken into account when considering motivation. • Keller and ARCS • Design principles can help bring in the concept of motivation. Technology is a tool that allows instructors to leverage ARCS principles to motivate students • Examples
Knowles (1980) and Andragogy Table from The Modern Practice of Adult Education
Implications • Adults not only learn differently than children, they have different expectations of learning and education. • Life experience changes the classroom because adults expect to integrate experience with new knowledge.
Keller’s ARCS Model • The ARCS Model is Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction • The ARCS model is a “problem solving approach to designing the motivational aspects of learning environments to stimulate and sustain students’ motivation to learn” (Keller, 1987).
ARCS Model • This is a form of design • It does not cause motivation, rather it enables technology to be manipulated to provide motivation
Attention • Gain and maintain student attention • Stimulate behavior to gain knowledge • Maintain student interests
Relevance • Relate to learner’s experience • Set and explain goals through objectives • Meet and match student motivation
Confidence • Make students aware of requirements • Provide multiple achievement levels • Provide feedback.
Satisfaction • Give students the chance to use the knowledge in a real setting • Provide feedback and reinforcement • Maintain constant standards
Now what? • We know what Keller’s ARCS Model calls for, and we know the limitations of design in our own courses. • How do we manipulate technology to incorporate ARCS principles?
Motivation • What works? • Consider these two TED videos: • Stanley McChrystal http://www.ted.com/talks/stanley_mcchrystal.html • Dan Pink http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/dan_pink_on_motivation.html
Why is instructor motivation Important? • “If we aren’t excited, our students aren’t excited.” • Enthusiasm is contagious. It MOTIVATES students.
Think about ARCS • How do you get student attention? • Weekly announcements • Articles and videos to reinforce topics • Link current events to topics OR topics to workplace Get student’s attention Maintain interest Stimulate behavior to gain knowledge
Erica’s Examples http://ericacjctopicchat.blogspot.com/
Think about ARCS • How are you relevant? • Ask students to relate their experiences to topic at hand • Checklists • Are you as excited as students? Relate to learner’s experience Set goals and explain objectives
Erica’s Examples Taken directly from the assignment rubric In discussion and seminar, ask Bob to clarify how he uses writing as a patrol officer. Ask Sally how fire science uses writing.
Think about ARCS • Do students know and understand how to be successful in the course? • Rubrics • Checklists • Clear feedback All give students a clear sense of what is expected of them and how they can be successful. Also shows students how to evaluate strengths and weaknesses .
Erica’s Examples • Grading is personal • What I might see as the most important thing on a rubric, a colleague may see as the least important thing • I use templates to show my expectations and to give students a step in the right direction
Think about ARCS • Do students see the use of knowledge? Can they see that their time is “well spent”? • Writing is used everyday. For example . . . • This is a skill you will use (summary, explanation, etc.) • Rubrics and feedback This is what we are learning, and this is how you can use it. This is what you are doing effectively, and this can use improvement. CONSISTENCY
Carrot meet stick? • Knowles argued that adult learners differ greatly from children. • Knowing this, does the carrot and stick approach that is used with children really work with adults?
What motivates adults? • Adults are generally motivated when they are given clear goals that are related to their personal goals. • Adults want to see how learning is related to careers and everyday life. • Adults want time maximized. In other words, can they access information quickly and easily?
What we can do • Utilizes Andragogy and ARCS to meet student needs • Ensures that we are effective communicators • Objectives • Goals • Expectations • Achievement
What we can do • Integrate academic learning with real world situations • Show students how they can use their information • Bring in our own industry experience • Maximize time by modeling time management and goal setting • Checklist, calendars, etc. • Share effective strategies
Motivation is a juggling act • We have different levels of learners. Remember that the “A” student needs as much motivation as the failing or struggling student. • Give levels of achievement expectation. Challenge students to move up a level.
Guess what? • One size does not fit all. • Keep a bag of tricks handy. • There will be times when we can’t motivate our students. That is not a failing on our part. • What works this term might fail next term, and what failed this term may work next term.
Pay it forward • We cannot make our students learn or be excited about a topic. We CAN give them the tools to learn.
References Keller, J. M. (1987a). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2 – 10. Keller, J. M. (1987b). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance & Instruction, 26(8), 1-7. Keller, J. M. (1999). Motivation in cyber learning environments. Educational Technology International, 1(1), 7 – 30. Knowles, M. S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Keller’s Website: http://www.arcsmodel.com/home.htm