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## Context Free Grammars

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**Context Free Grammars**Xiaoyin Wang CS 5363 Spring 2019**Context Free Grammars**Xiaoyin Wang CS 5363 Spring 2016**Today’s Class**Derivation Trees Ambiguity Normal Forms CYK Algorithm**Derivation Trees**Illustrate the derivation of a certain sentence from a grammar Different derivation orders may generate same derivation tree**Derivation Order**Consider the following example grammar with 5 productions:**Leftmost derivation order of string :**At each step, we substitute the leftmost variable**Rightmost derivation order of string :**At each step, we substitute the rightmost variable**Leftmost derivation of :**Rightmost derivation of :**Derivation Trees**Consider the same example grammar: And a derivation of :**Derivation Tree**(parse tree) yield**Sometimes, derivation order doesn’t matter**Leftmost derivation: Rightmost derivation: Give same derivation tree**Ambiguity**A grammar can have multiple derivation tree to derive a certain sentence Classification: inherent ambiguity and non-inherent ambiguity**Grammar for mathematical expressions**Example strings: Denotes any number**Another**leftmost derivation for**Good Tree**Bad Tree Compute expression result using the tree**Two different derivation trees**may cause problems in applications which use the derivation trees: • Evaluating expressions • In general, in compilers for programming languages**Ambiguous Grammar:**A context-free grammar is ambiguous if there is a string which has: two different derivation trees or two leftmost derivations (Two different derivation trees give two different leftmost derivations and vice-versa)**Example:**this grammar is ambiguous since string has two derivation trees**this grammar is ambiguous also because**string has two leftmost derivations**Another ambiguous grammar:**IF_STMT if EXPR then STMT if EXPR then STMT else STMT Variables Terminals Very common piece of grammar in programming languages**If expr1 then if expr2 then stmt1 else stmt2**IF_STMT if expr1 then STMT if expr2 then stmt1 else stmt2 Two derivation trees IF_STMT if expr1 then STMT else stmt2 if expr2 then stmt1**In general, ambiguity is bad**and we want to remove it Sometimes it is possible to find a non-ambiguous grammar for a language But, in general we cannot do so**A successful example:**Equivalent Ambiguous Grammar Non-Ambiguous Grammar generates the same language**Unique**derivation tree for**An un-successful example:**is inherently ambiguous: every grammar that generates this language is ambiguous**Ambiguity: Summary**A grammar can have multiple parser tree to derive a certain sentence Inherent ambiguous language All grammars are ambiguous Non-inherent ambiguous language There exist at least one grammar that is not ambiguous Checking ambiguity of a grammar or a language: un-decidable problem**Today’s Class**Derivation Trees Ambiguity Normal Forms CYK Algorithm**Normal Forms**Chomsky Normal Forms BNF Normal Forms**A context free grammar is said to be in Chomsky Normal Form**if all productions are in the following form: A → BC A → α • A, B and C are non terminal symbols • α is a terminal symbol**There are three preliminary simplifications**Eliminate Useless Symbols Eliminate ε productions Eliminate unit productions 1 2 3**Eliminate Useless Symbols**We need to determine if the symbol is useful by identifying if a symbol is generating and is reachable * • X is generating if X ω for some terminal string ω. • X is reachable if there is a derivation X αXβ for some α and β ***Example: Removing non-generating symbols**S → AB | a A → b Initial CFL grammar S→AB | a A→b Identify generating symbols S→a A→b Remove non-generating**Example: Removing non-reachable symbols**S→a Eliminate non-reachable S→a A → b Identify reachable symbols**The order is important?**Looking first for non-reachable symbols and then for non-generating symbols can still leave some useless symbols. S → AB | a A → b S → a A → b**Finding generating symbols**If there is a production A →α, and every symbol of α is already known to be generating. Then A is generating We cannot use S → AB because B has not been established to be generating S → AB | a A → b**Finding reachable symbols**S is surely reachable. All symbols in the body of a production with S in the head are reachable. S → AB | a A → b In this example the symbols {S, A, B, a, b} are reachable.**There are three preliminary simplifications**Eliminate Useless Symbols Eliminate ε productions Eliminate unit productions 1 2 3**Eliminate ε Productions**• In a grammar ε productions are convenient but not essential • If L has a CFG, then L – {ε} has a CFG A ε * Nullable variable**If A is a nullable variable**• Whenever A appears on the body of a production A might or might not derive ε S → ASA | aB A → B | S B → b | ε Nullable: {A, B}**Eliminate ε Productions**• Create two version of the production, one with the nullable variable and one without it • Eliminate productions with ε bodies S → ASA| aB A → B | S B → b | ε S →ASA| aB | AS | SA | S | a A → B | S | ε B → b | ε**Eliminate ε Productions**• Create two version of the production, one with the nullable variable and one without it • Eliminate productions with ε bodies S → ASA |aB A → B | S B → b | ε S → ASA | aB | AS | SA | S | a A → B | S | ε B → b | ε**Eliminate ε Productions**• Create two version of the production, one with the nullable variable and one without it • Eliminate productions with ε bodies S → ASA | aB A → B | S B → b | ε S → ASA | aB | AS | SA | S | a A → B | S | ε B → b | ε**There are three preliminary simplifications**Eliminate Useless Symbols Eliminate ε productions Eliminate unit productions 1 2 3