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Chapter 4 . Sausage Casings. Topics Covered. Natural casings Synthetic or cellulose casing Collagen casing Stuffing the casing Smoking the sausage Poaching the sausage. Natural Casings. Processed intestines of hogs, sheep, and cattle Hog stomach: tongue sausage

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Chapter 4 l.jpg

Chapter 4

Sausage Casings


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Topics Covered

  • Natural casings

  • Synthetic or cellulose casing

  • Collagen casing

  • Stuffing the casing

  • Smoking the sausage

  • Poaching the sausage


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Natural Casings

  • Processed intestines of hogs, sheep, and cattle

    • Hog stomach: tongue sausage

    • Sheep stomach: haggis (Scottish specialty)

    • Beef: middles and rounds

      • For bologna, mortadella, liverwurst, salami, etc.

    • Beef bung: veal sausage, large bologna and cooked salami


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Natural Casings (cont’d.)

  • After harvested, intestines are:

  • Cleaned

  • Calibrated

  • Stretched and sized

  • Packed in plain salt or a salt brine solution

  • Measurements

    • Large intestine casings in inches

    • Smaller intestine casings in millimeters

      • Called hank or bundle


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    Natural Casings (cont’d.)

    • Before use:

      • Wash in lukewarm water

      • Force water through to flush out impurities

      • Rinse outside to remove all salt

      • Soak for one hour in warm water to soften and make tender

    One hank of sausage casings





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    Synthetic or Cellulose Casings

    • Synthetic fibrous casings:

      • The norm

      • Array of colors

      • Purchased on Internet or mail-order

      • Usually lined on inside with a coat of protein

        • Allows synthetic casing to shrink with filling

      • Less expensive

      • Easier to store

      • Synthetic/cellulose casings are not edible


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    Collagen Casings

    • Similar to animal casings but have manufactured uniformity

      • Allow consistency

      • Hide of cattle consists of collagen

      • Corium layer is extruded from area between grain (hair) layer and fat and muscle layer

      • Protein and water are mixed with lactic acid and cellulose fibers, causing swelling and slurry to form


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    Collagen Casings (cont’d.)

    • Acid-swollen slurry is de-aerated under vacuum

      • Homogenized and filtered

      • De-aerated again; stored to chill in tanks

      • Extruded through die with counterrotating sleeves: “weaves” fibers together

      • Passes through concentrate coagulating solution of inorganic salt


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    Collagen Casings (cont’d.)

    • Chemically treated in processing machine

      • Cross-link

    • Washed, plasticized with glycerin, dried, and partially rehumidified and wound on reels

      • Reels are taken to a shirring machine

      • Collagen casing is shirred to regenerate cellulose


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    Collagen Casings (cont’d.)

    • Two types of edible collagen casings:

      • Thin skin for fresh sausages

      • Thicker skin for smoked sausages

    • Nonedible flat collagen casings:

      • Can be stored at room temperature

      • Must be soaked in salted lukewarm water for 30 minutes before use


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    Stuffing the Casing

    • Set up hand or electric sausage

      • Make sure nozzle and work table/sheet pan are lubricated with cold water

        • Prevents sticking and tearing

      • All parts of stuffer that contacts forcemeat must be sanitized, clean, and well chilled

      • Fill stuffer with forcemeat by pressing or tapping down

        • Removes all possible air pockets


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    Stuffing the Casing (cont’d.)

    • Slide open end of casing over nozzle

      • Pipe into casing

      • Support casing with full hand as forcemeat is piped into nozzle casing

    • After sausages are measured into shape, pierce to remove air pockets

    Filling hog casing for boudin and ready

    cooked boudin


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    Stuffing the Casing (cont’d.)

    Making a bubble knot for large casings


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    Smoking the Sausage

    • Cold smoke:

      • Hang sausages made without curing salts to dry for 1 to 2 hours in a 70°F room

    • Hot smoke:

      • Hang cured sausages to incubate in a 70°F room for 12 to 24 hours

      • Smoke following time and temperature directions

      • Sausages are now ready to be poached


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    Poaching the Sausage

    • Use a large or oversized pot

    • Use hand or digital thermometer to monitor temperature of poaching water

      • If water temperature is too high, sausages will burst

        • If too low, the sausages may lose flavor

      • Starting temperature: 160°F–170°F

      • Finishing internal temperature: 155°F to 160°F


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    Poaching the Sausage (cont’d.)

    • Cooling process for natural casings is started in cold running water

    • For synthetic casings, start cooling in lukewarm water

      • Slowly finish in cold running water

    • All sausages must be refrigerated or frozen before use


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    Summary

    • This chapter reviewed:

      • Differences among various casings (natural, synthetic, and collagen)

      • How to work with casings

      • How to prepare casings for filling

      • How to tie casings

      • How to poach and cool sausages


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