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Restoring the Shattered Self: The Treatment of Complex Trauma AACC National Conference, 2014. Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D. Denver Seminary [email protected] My Background in this Specialization. Sexual abuse survivors Dissociative disorders

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restoring the shattered self the treatment of complex trauma aacc national conference 2014

Restoring the Shattered Self: The Treatment of Complex TraumaAACC National Conference, 2014

Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D.

Denver Seminary

[email protected]

my background in this specialization
My Background in this Specialization
  • Sexual abuse survivors
  • Dissociative disorders
  • Other trauma survivors (see Gingrich, 2002)
  • Research on dissociation and trauma in the Philippines
  • Recognition of overlap in treatment techniques
trauma field
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

- even single exposure

- natural disasters

- rape incident

- witnessing violence

- combat veterans

- primarily cognitive-behavioral treatments

- International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS)

Complex Traumatic Stress Disorder

(Disorders of Extreme Stress)

- multiple exposures

- incest survivors

- child abuse and rape

- multi-faceted treatment approaches

- International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD)

Trauma Field

Trauma Psychology, Division 56, APA

posttraumatic stress disorder dsm v criteria
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder:DSM-V Criteria
  • Exposure to traumatic event
  • Intrusive Symptoms (at least 1)
  • Avoidance Symptoms (at least 1)
  • Negative Alterations in Cognitions and Mood (2 or more)
  • Alterations in arousal and reactivity (2 or more)
  • Symptom duration of more than 1 month
  • Clinically significant distress/impairment in functioning
  • Specifiers
    • With dissociative symptoms (depersonalization or derealization
    • With delayed expression

American Psychiatric Association, 2013

dsm 5 change in criteria a
DSM-5 – Change in Criteria A

Sexual assault listed as a possible traumatic event

Response of fear, helplessness, or horror no longer included

dsm 5 additional symptom cluster
DSM-5 – Additional Symptom Cluster

  • Negative thoughts and mood or feelings
    • a persistent and distorted sense ofblame of self or others
    • estrangement from others or markedly diminished interest in activities
    • an inability to remember key aspects of the event.
dsm 5 ptsd dissociative subtype
DSM-5 PTSD Dissociative Subtype

  • chosen when PTSD is seen with prominent dissociative symptoms
    • depersonalization
      • experiences of feeling detached from one’s own mind or body
    • derealization
      • experiences in which the world seems unreal, dreamlike or distorted.
DSM-5-Definition of Dissociation

Disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor

control, and behavior.

Simply put: Dissociation is compartmentalization, or disconnection among aspects of self and experience

Normal versus Pathological Dissociation

why talk about dissociation
Why Talk About Dissociation?
  • Used by victims of all kinds of trauma
  • There is a link between both peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD, in addition to a well-documented association between trauma and posttraumatic dissociation (see Gingrich, 2005)
  • Dissociative subtype of PTSD in DSM-5
  • Explanation for why treatment techniques for dissociative disorders can also be helpful for other trauma survivorsDSM-5 now lists a dissociative subtype

Adapted from Braun, B. G. (1988)

developing the capacity to dissociate
Developing the Capacity to Dissociate
  • We are born unintegrated (i.e., dissociated)
  • Healthy attachment leads to integration of behavioral states
  • Impact of child abuse
  • Dissociation as a defense
  • Mental disorder

- dissociative disorder/other disorder with dissociative symptoms

Putnam, 1997

attachment style and dissociation
Attachment Style and Dissociation

Attuned, “good enough” parenting

Secure attachment style

Integration of self-states

Inattentive/neglectful/abusive parenting

Insecure (Ambivalent/Disorganized)

attachment style

Dissociated self-states

(Gingrich, 2013)

dissociative symptoms
Dissociative Symptoms
  • Amnesia:A specific and significant block of time that has passed but that cannot be accounted for by memory
  • Depersonalization:Sense of detachment from one’s self, e.g., a sense of looking at one’s self as if one is an outsider
  • Derealization: A feeling that one’s surroundings are strange or unreal.
  • Identityconfusion:Subjective feelings of uncertainty, puzzlement, or conflict about one’s identity
  • Identityalteration: Objective behavior indicating the assumption of different identities or ego states, much more distinct than different roles

Steinberg (1994).

dsm v diagnoses related to dissociation
DSM-V Diagnoses Related to Dissociation
  • Dissociative disorders
    • Dissociative amnesia
    • Depersonalization/derealization disorder
    • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
    • Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified
  • Selected other disorders with significant dissociative symptoms
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    • Somatic symptom and related disorders
    • Schizophrenia
    • Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
    • Others (e.g., eating and feeding, anxiety)
bask model of dissociation
  • Behavior
  • Affect (emotions)
  • Sensation (physical)
  • Knowledge

Full, integrated memory includes all four re-associated components.

Braun, 1988

bask k nowledge
  • Trauma survivor has full or partial cognitive knowledge of traumatic event
  • Cognitive knowledge of the trauma is dissociated from behavior, affect and sensation
  • Generally what people mean when they say “I remember”
bask b ehavior
  • Behavior is dissociated from other aspects of memory
  • Individual acts in a certain manner without knowing why
  • Examples:

-avoiding intimate relationships

-vomiting after sexual intercourse

-dislike of particular foods

bask a ffect
  • Affect is dissociated from other aspects of memory
  • Example: feeling of fear for no apparent reason
bask a ffect continued
BASK – AFFECT(continued)
  • There are no feelings attached to the cognitive knowledge of the memory

-flat affect

-matter-of-fact tone of voice

e.g., can talk about being raped as though discussing the heat of the coming summer

bask s ensation
  • Physical sensation is dissociated from other aspects of memory
  • Individual may have cognitive knowledge of the traumatic event, be aware of related affect, and understand some behavior, but not remember the pain or pleasure associated with the trauma
  • Examples:

-body memories – physical symptoms such as bleeding or severe pain occur in the present but are unexplained

-sexual excitement

BASK Model

Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 107

rationale for phase oriented model
Rationale for Phase-Oriented Model
  • Premature trauma processing can lead to destabilization
    • Hospitalization
    • Inability to function in job
    • Difficulty parenting
    • Basic coping capacities can be overwhelmed
three phases
Three Phases

Phase I – Safety and Stabilization

Phase II – Processing of Traumatic Memories

Phase III – Consolidation and Restoration

phase i safety and stabilization
Phase I – Safety and Stabilization
  • Safety within the Therapeutic Relationship
    • Developing rapport
      • Facilitative conditions
    • Becoming a safe person
      • Remember that every client is unique
      • Know your limitations
      • Give advance warning
    • Remaining a safe person
      • Keep appropriate therapeutic boundaries
      • Consult
      • Protect confidentiality
phase i safety and stabilization 2
Phase I – Safety and Stabilization …2
  • Safety from Others
      • Identifying healthy vs. unhealthy relationships
      • Helping clients find physical safety
safety from self and symptoms
Safety from Self and Symptoms
  • Making sense of symptoms
    • Symptoms as attempts at coping
    • Warning signals
  • Therapeutic use of dissociation
    • Potentially assess use of dissociation
      • Somataform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-5 or SDQ-20) (Nijenhuis, 1999)
      • Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) (Putnam, 1997)
      • Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R) (Steinberg, 1993)
    • Use of parts of self language
    • Contracting
      • symptom management
      • day to day activities
      • suicide
    • Ideomotor signaling
phase ii processing of traumatic memories
Phase II - Processing of Traumatic Memories
  • Readiness for Phase II Work
  • Memory Work
    • Nature of memory
    • Accessing dissociated memories
      • Deciding where to start
      • When specific memories do not surface
    • Is memory recovery the goal?
    • Facilitating the integration of experience
      • The importance of details
      • Titrating the process
      • Extent to which reexperiencing is necessary
      • Grounding techniques
      • Checking in
      • Memory containment
      • Structuring the session and counseling relationship
BASK Model

Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 107

phase ii processing of traumatic memories cont d
Phase II - Processing of Traumatic Memories (cont’d)
  • Facilitating Integration of Self and Identity
  • Working through Intense Emotions
    • General principles
    • Understanding and dealing with specific emotions
      • Mourning: Denial, anger, and depression
      • Guilt, shame, and self-hatred
      • Fear of abandonment
      • Anxiety, terror, and fear
  • Roadblocks for counselors
  • Keeping Perspective
Levels of Integration of Self

Partial Integration

Full Integration

No Integration

Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 121

Integration of Self and Experience

Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 122

is the goal full integration
Is the Goal Full Integration?
  • Immediate goal is better functioning
  • Some highly dissociative clients never fully integrate
    • May be afraid to (i.e., fear of death of parts of self)
    • Too much work and time
  • The process of integration can begin to happen from the beginning of therapy
dealing with spiritual issues 1
Dealing with Spiritual Issues (1)
  • All phases, but particularly Phases II and III
  • Gradual, often difficult process
  • Allow client to set pace
  • Often are questions re: why God did not protect from the trauma
  • In time clients can often see that God was there, and is currently involved in their healing process
  • In highly dissociative clients, some parts of self may have a relationship with Christ, while others may not
    • E.g., internal Bible study
dealing with spiritual issues 2
Dealing with Spiritual Issues (2)
  • Distinguish between parts of self and demonic
    • Ultimately gift of discernment necessary
    • Potentially VERY destructive to attempt deliverance ministry
  • If any kind of deliverance/exorcism ritual is decided upon make sure that the following factors are incorporated (Bull, Ellason, & Ross, 1998):
    • Permission of the individual
    • Noncoercion
    • Active participation by the individual
    • Understanding of DID dynamics by those in charge
    • Implementation of the procedure within the context of psychotherapy
  • See my article “Not all voices are demonic” (Gingrich, 2005b)
phase iii consolidation and resolution
Phase III – Consolidation and Resolution
  • Consolidating changes
  • Development of new coping strategies
  • Learning to live as an integrated whole
  • Navigating changing relationships
    • Marriage and parenting
    • Friendships
    • Relationship to God and church congregations
    • Community
    • Family of origin
  • Employment
  • Confronting the perpetrator
  • Forgiveness
how the church can help
How the Church Can Help
  • Educating about CTSD
  • Providing emotional and spiritual support
    • Formal care
    • Groups
    • Lay counseling
    • Mentoring, spiritual direction and life coaching
    • Assigned helpers
    • Informal care
  • Churches and Christian mental health professionals in partnership
  • American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
  • American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (5th ed). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Braun (1988). The BASK model of dissociation: Clinical applications. Dissociation, 1(2), 16-23.
  • Bull, D., Ellason, J., & Ross, C. (1998). Exorcism revisited: Some positive outcomes with dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 26, 188-196.
  • Carlson, E. (1997). Trauma assessments: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Gingrich, H. D. (2002). Stalked by Death: Cross-cultural Trauma Work with a Tribal Missionary.Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 21(3), 262-265.
Gingrich, H. D. (2005a). Trauma and dissociation in the Philippines. In G. F. Rhoades, Jr. and V. Sar (2005), Trauma and dissociation in a cross-cultural perspective: Not just a North American phenomenon. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Gingrich, H. (2005b). Not all voices are demonic. Phronesis, (Asian Theological Seminary/Alliance Graduate School, Philippines)12, 81-104.
  • Gingrich, H. D. (2013). Restoring the shattered self: A Christian counselor’s guide to complex trauma. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press
  • McFarlane, A. & Girolamo, G. (1996). The nature of traumatic stressors and the epidemiology of posttraumatic reactions. In B. A. van der Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (1999). Somatoform dissociation: Phenomena, measurement, and theoretical issues. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum.
Putnam, F. W. (1997). Dissociation in children and adolescents: A developmental perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Steinberg, M. (1993). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

van der Kolk, B. A., Weisaeth, L., & van der Hart, O. (1996). History of trauma in psychiatry. In B. A. vander Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.