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Cooking is heating food to transform it in some way. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Section 15.1 How Cooking Alters Food. Cooking is heating food to transform it in some way. Food is affected in different ways by different cooking techniques. Cooking Techniques. Cooking involves heating the food in a number of different processes.

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slide1

Section 15.1 How Cooking Alters Food

  • Cooking is heating food to transform it in some way.
  • Food is affected in different ways by different cooking techniques.
slide2

Cooking Techniques

  • Cooking involves heating the food in a number of different processes.
  • The degree of change that occurs during cooking depends on:
    • the length of cooking time.
    • the temperature.
    • the cooking technique used.
slide3

dry cooking technique

Cooking technique that uses oil, fat, the radiation of hot air, or metal to transfer heat.

moist cooking technique

combination cooking

Uses liquid instead of oil to create the heat energy that is needed to cook the food.

Uses both moist and dry cooking techniques.

Cooking Techniques

  • The three types of cooking techniques are:
    • dry
    • moist
    • combination
slide4

Changes in Cooked Food

  • A food’s nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, flavor, and appearance change during cooking.
  • The length of time and the technique determine how much nutrition a food will retain.
slide5

coagulate

When proteins change from a liquid or semiliquid state to a drier, solid state.

Changes in Cooked Food

  • During cooking, moisture is lost, food tissue breaks down, and proteins coagulate, all changing the texture.
slide6

pigment

The matter in cells and tissue that gives them their color.

Changes in Cooked Food

  • Common pigments in food that can be affected by cooking include:
    • chlorophyll
    • flavonoids
    • carotenoids
slide7

caramelization

enhance

The process of cooking sugar to high temperatures to create aroma and flavor.

Increase the quality of.

Changes in Cooked Food

  • Cooking techniques that use fat create caramelization.
  • The correct cooking technique can enhancethe flavor of food.
slide8

Section 15.2 Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Dry cooking causes moisture in food to evaporate into the air.
  • Dry cooking techniques include baking, roasting, sautéing, stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, grilling, and broiling.
slide9

smoking

bake

A form of cooking using low heat, long cooking times, and wood smoke for flavor.

Cook with dry heat in a closed environment, usually an oven. No fat or liquid is used.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Dry cooking techniques include:
    • baking
    • smoking
slide10

sautéing

A quick, dry cooking technique that uses a small amount of fat or oil in a shallow pan.

roasting

Cooking method that uses dry heat in a closed environment. Foods are placed on top of a rack that is inside a pan. This allows air to circulate all the way around the food.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Dry cooking techniques include:
    • roasting
    • sautéing
slide11

frying

Cooking foods in hot fat or oil.

stir-frying

A dry cooking technique similar to sautéing done with a wok.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Dry cooking techniques include:
    • stir-frying
    • frying
slide12

broiling

To cook food directly under a primary heat source.

grilling

A cooking method that places food on a heated grill.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Dry cooking techniques include:
    • grilling
    • broiling
slide13

carryover cooking

The cooking that takes place after you remove something from a heat source.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Moisture from the food evaporates into the air during dry cooking.
  • A large food product will exhibit carryovercooking when baked in an oven.
slide14

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Smoking can be done to meats, nuts, vegetables, and cheeses.
  • During sautéing, you will want to seal the surface of the food.

What types of smoked foods have you eaten?

slide15

dredging

batter

Coat foods with flour; coating poultry parts with seasoned flour.

A semi-liquid mixture that contains ingredients such as flour, milk, eggs, and seasonings.

breading

A coating made of eggs and crumbs.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Foods are usually coated before frying by:
    • dredging
    • breading
    • using batter
slide16

pan-fry

deep-frying

To cook by heating a moderate amount of fat in a pan before adding food.

To cook foods by completely submerging them in heated fator oil.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Drain food well after frying on an absorbent surface.
  • There are two options for frying: pan-frying and deep-frying.
slide17

griddle

broiling

A flat, solid plate of metal with a gas or electric heat source.

To cook food directly under a primary heat source.

Dry Cooking Techniques

  • Grilling is often used for tender foods that cook relatively quickly.
  • Grilling can be done on a griddle.
  • Broiling is often used for vegetables, meats, and poultry.
slide18

Section 15.3 Moist Cooking Techniques

  • Moist cooking involves heating food in a liquid.
  • Sometimes moist cooking techniques are applied to food that has been partially cooked with a dry cooking technique.
slide19

Cooking in Liquid

  • Moist cooking involves heating food in a liquid other than fat.
slide20

boiling

A moist cooking technique in which you bring a liquid, such as water or stock, to the boiling point and keep it at that temperature while food cooks.

blanching

Using the boiling method to partially cook food.

Cooking in Liquid

  • Moist cooking techniques include:
    • boiling
    • blanching
slide21

parboiling

Foods are put into boiling water and partially cooked. The cooking time for parboiling foods is longer than for blanching.

simmering

Food cooks slowly and steadily in a slightly cooler than boiling liquid.

Cooking in Liquid

  • Moist cooking techniques include:
    • parboiling
    • simmering
slide22

poach

To cook food in a flavorful liquid between 150°F (66°C) and 185°F (85°C).

steaming

Cooking vegetables or other foods in a closed environment filled with steam.

Cooking in Liquid

  • Moist cooking techniques include:
    • poaching
    • steaming
slide23

convection

A process in which the liquid closest to the bottom of the pan is heated and rises to the top.

Cooking in Liquid

  • When liquid boils, convection occurs.
  • Blanching is used to:
    • simplify peeling.
    • precook foods before freezing or service
    • soften herbs.
    • lock in color and nutrients.
    • remove excess salt, blood, and strong flavors.
slide24

Cooking in Liquid

  • Simmering offers less shrinkage of the food and more control over evaporation.
  • Poaching is a gentler way to cook foods in liquid, used for delicate foods such as fish and eggs.
  • Steamers cook foods without dissolving the nutrients in the food.

What types of foods have you eaten that were prepared by steaming?

slide25

Combination Cooking

  • Combination cooking combines dry and moist heat methods.
slide26

stewing

braising

A combination cooking technique. Stewed foods are cut into small pieces, and completely covered with liquid during cooking. Cooking time for stewing is generally shorter than for braising.

A long, slow cooking process; meat is first seared and the pan deglazed before the moist cooking technique is used.

Combination Cooking

  • Two major combination techniques are:
    • braising
    • stewing
slide27

Combination Cooking

  • Braising can help make tough cuts of meat more tender.
  • Cooking time is shorter for stewing than braising.