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AP Biology: Unit Two Review

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  1. AP Biology: Unit Two Review Why is it so hard for small populations to survive? ANS: Because the tendency to inbreed occurs, making the incidence of lethal combinations of alleles more common. When two unrelated species evolve to look similar, in analogous environments, yet in different places on Earth, what has happened? ANS: Convergent evolution

  2. 3. Name the theory that states organisms evolved slowly over time. ANS: Gradualism Which of these diagrams might show a phylogeny of organisms who evolved through punctuated equilibrium? ANS: B 5. Because of the usual formation of a hybrid zone, a stepped cline can most closely be associated with what type of speciation? ANS: Parapatric

  3. 6. If a student determines the chi-square number is 1.36, having 6 categories of data, should she accept or reject the hypothesis? ANS: Accept 7. What was the approximate probability that her data could be relied upon to justify that her hypothesis was correct? ANS: 93% 8. How many degrees of freedom did she have? ANS: 5

  4. Match the words below to the phrases that follow: Note…some may be used more than once! Temporal Behavioral Mechanical Ecological Gametic Mortality Hybridization 9. Pre-zygotic isolation 10. Post-zygotic isolation 11. All about time 12. Parts just don’t fit anymore 13. Adapting to microenvironments 14. Mating rituals 15. Fertilized eggs cannot survive because of some miss-wiring T; B; M; E; G H T M E B G

  5. 16. Type of speciation that occurs when geographic isolation causes bottlenecking and founder effect… ANS: Peripatric 17. The key to speciation (evolution) is… ANS: Isolation 18. What ultimately determines whether a mutation is a benefit or a detriment to an organism? ANS: the environment the organism lives in

  6. Use the following types of selection and speciation, and match (not all may be used) Stabilizing Directional Disruptive Sympatric Allopatric Parapatric 19. Selection against trait extremes 20. Speciation due to geographic isolation 21. Speciation due to exploitation of slightly different niches within the same environment 22. Favors intermediate organism 23. Favors selection of both extremes in traits 24. Development of a hybrid zone Stabilizing Allopatric Sympatric Stabilizing Disruptive Parapatric

  7. 25. How did the writings of Thomas Malthus contribute to Darwin’s understanding of Natural Selection as a process? ANS: Survival of the fittest 26. Penguins have tiny vestigial wings that can no longer be used to fly. What would Lamarck say about how they evolved this way? ANS: Because penguins didn’t NEED to fly, and instead, needed to SWIM, the fluida moved away from the wing muscles and they became smaller and more streamlined, so now they function as flippers. Over time they lost the ability to fly.

  8. Use the following information to answer the questions below: On Mauritius, the red pigeon is a strangely pepto-bismalcolored animal. The dominant trait is this strange light red color, caused by the R allele. A small portion of the island population is black and white. The recessive allele (r) causes this black and white pattern. Of the entire population of 500 birds, 25 of them are black and white. 27. What is the frequency of heterozygous? 28. What is the frequency of the r allele? 29. What is the frequency of the R allele? 30. What is the frequency of the dominant trait? .34 .22 .78 .95

  9. 31. How is the evolutionary “fitness” of an individual defined? ANS: By its ability to reproduce viable offspring 32. Random genetic variation produces three colors of peppered moths…light, medium, and dark. During the industrial age in Great Britain, the peppered moths that were darkly colored had a competitive advantage over the lighter colored moths, due to the deposition of soot on the bark of trees where they lived. The “environment” selected most beneficial coloration. What type of selection was exhibited here, if the light, and medium colored moths were selected against? ANS: Directional