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Cleaner Production : A tool for Green Competitiveness in the Turkish Industry

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Cleaner Production : A tool for Green Competitiveness in the Turkish Industry. Ch 8. Water savings in CP. Middle East Technical University Department of Environmental Engineering Workshop Series 31 March-2 April 2008 Ankara, Turkey. Objectives.

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Cleaner Production:

A tool for Green Competitiveness in the

Turkish Industry

Ch 8. Water savings in CP

Middle East Technical University

Department of Environmental Engineering

Workshop Series

31 March-2 April 2008

Ankara, Turkey

  • Emphasizes the particular relevance of water in the Mediterranean area
  • Reviews the basic concepts of industrial water management
  • Describes some possible water conservation and wastewater recycling reuse approaches
  • Studies the case of the surface treatment industry
water management in industrial sectors
Water management in Industrial Sectors
  • …………………The Conceptual Change
  • Water must always be considered as a vital resource that plays a critical role for the achievement of sustainable development.
  • Historical reasons hindered this viewpoint.
    • Water was a cheap resource that did not have much incidence on the economic balance of manufacture.
    • At the beginning of industrial development, industrial wastewaters had little specific incidence on the receiving medium.
    • Research and development laboratories were among the last to recognize the global importance of water.
  • It was finally pointed out that there were major reasons to promote an efficient water management system in industrial sectors, which include:
    • the increasingly restricted availability of this resources,
    • the need to obtain quality regulatory limits for wastewater discharge,
    • the increasing cost of total water management.
principles of water management
Principles of Water Management

(i) Water must be considered as a resource to be conserved.

(ii) Water must be discharged with physical-chemical and biological characteristics that do not have a detrimental impact on the environment, or must preferably be reused.

(iii) The critical elements of water must continually be monitored and the results recorded in order to keep the situation under control.

(iv) Direct liability for water management must be assigned to the head of each production department.

(v) Optimum operating conditions must be established for each separate use, and the type of water to be used in all the process installations must be determined.

assessment of water management in cp
Assessment of Water Management in CP
  • reviewing the legislation and regulations, including any that may limit the possibilities of reuse
  • obtaining/reviewing the data on water supply, its source and volumes
  • obtaining/reviewing the data on wastewaters: flow rates and volumes, averages and maximum peak volumes
  • determining the characteristics of the streams: pH, temperature, TDS, BOD, COD, etc.;
  • carrying out water balances;
  • assessing losses from infiltration or vaporization;
  • obtaining economic data on the cost of treatments and supplies;
  • identifying potential quantities for recycling and reuse
  • etc.
industrial use of water
Industrial use of water
  • Used in large volumes
    • Cooling systems (directorindirect in open orclosedloops)
  • Used in moderate volumes
    • General services at the factory (ex. Cleaning)
    • Uses in the process (reagent or solvent, transport, gas scrubbing)
    • Sanitary service
  • Used in lesser volumes
    • High quality water makeup (boiler feed, labs, selective use in the process)
    • Potable service
    • Fire fighting water system (on standby)
types of wastewater
Types of wastewater
  • Waters from manufacturing and process units
    • Waters which have been used in the main reactions and transformations
    • Product cleaning waters
    • Water from recipient cleaning and rinsing
  • Water from utilities services and support operations
    • Boiler blowdown
    • Cooling tower blowdown
    • Gas scrubbing blowdown
    • Water from ejectors and vacuum pumps
    • Treated wastewaters
    • General housekeeping water
  • Stormwater
    • Contaminated
    • Non contaminated.
reduction of industrial consumptions
Reduction of Industrial Consumptions
  • Elimination of losses
  • Minimization of use in individual applications
  • Water reuse

Water use does not always correspond to real requirements

Measure, measure, measure!!!!!!!!

water conservation options
Water conservation options
  • Control flow rates by using restrictions or automatic systems
  • Carry out cleaning with efficient systems such as:
    • high pressure water jets instead of using deep tanks,
    • using counter-current or cascade systems for washing and rinsing,
    • control conductivity of aqueous baths before discharge in surface coatings.
  • In utility water systems, the following measures can be adopted:
    • install automatic shutoff systems on drinking fountains,
    • install limiting flow rate controllers in showers,
    • limit flushing in toilets.
  • Change from aqueous-based systems to dry systems, such as:
    • using filters to retain particles in gas instead of washing with scrubbers,
    • switch to air cooling instead of water cooling systems.
water reuse
Water Reuse
  • The type of contaminants (organic, inorganic, etc) and their concentrations
  • The variability in quantity and quality of the waters to be treated
  • Whether the contaminants are dissolved or in suspension
  • If the dissolved contaminant is gas, solid or liquid
  • The yields obtained with each technology
  • All the investments and costs linked to recovery
  • Operation and maintenance requirements, and
  • The type and quantity of waste left after treatment
University of Girona

Maria Martin

Maria J. Martin

Facultat de Ciències. Campus Montilivi s/n

E17071- Girona (Spain)

Telf: +34 972 418 161

E-mail: [email protected]