Define Chemistry Physical States of Matter Properties of Matter Chemical Reactions

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## Define Chemistry Physical States of Matter Properties of Matter Chemical Reactions

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**Notes One Unit Three**Pages 3-11 Define ChemistryPhysical States of MatterProperties of MatterChemical Reactions**What is Chemistry?Chemistry is the study of matter and the**changes it undergoes**There are three states of matter.**• What are they? • Solid • Liquid • gas**Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids**solid gas liquid containers shape/volume fixed volume/shape container shape compressible not easilycompressible not easily compressible flows easily does not flow easily flows easily**A chemical reaction is the process where new chemicals are**made out of old chemicals. Products HgO(s)Hg(l) + O2(g) Reactants Chemical Properties? Physical Properties? Light? Flames? Color Density Solid forms? Bubbles? Texture Boiling point A change occurs???? Odor Melting point**Sodium In Water Demo**Pages 18-19 • Physical properties • are observed or measured without changing the Chemical. • Chemical properties of matter • describes its "potential" to undergo some chemical change.**Notes Two Unit Three**• Mass and Volume • Density • Weight versus Mass • Atom Versus Element • Atoms, Elements, Molecules • Reading Scales Pages 308-317**Density**• Amount of matter per unit volume. • Is this a solid, liquid or gas? • Density=Mass/volume • Water: 1.0g/mL. • Aluminum: 2.73g/mL. • Air: 0.001293g/mL**Weight versus Mass**• Mass and weight are different properties. • Mass is the amount of matter in the body • Weight is a measure of the force of gravitational field. • Which weighs more, a poundof feathers or a pound of lead? • Which has more mass?**Atom versus Element**• Each element is made up of one kind of atom. • Proton number( atomic number) identifies elements 22 23 25 21 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35**Color of Elements in Fireworks**Sr, Li Ca Fe, C Na Mg, Al, Ba Ma, Cl Cu Sr, Cu**Element versus Molecule**Pages 20-24**Reading Scales**• In order to produce reliable data…density, volume, mass….we need to be able to read the scales on measuring devices. • Place Water in the Erlenmeyer flask…Record the reading. 2. Pour the water into the smaller cylinder…Record the reading. 3. Pour the water to the larger cylinder…Record the reading. 4. Measure the mass of the piece of metal using the balance Record the reading. Pages 56-64**Reading Scales**Read Digit(s) Estimated Digit 5 8 7 5 9 5**Size of Scales**• Read each scale. • 0.9 • 9 • 90 • 0.0009**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. 2. Decimal? NO! and Place Holder(s)! 3. Final answer and alternates! 600 r p p 500 6 0 0 700**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. No and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 1.0 0.9 1.1 r e 1 0 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and NO Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? No! 3. Final answer and alternates! 37 38 36 r e 3 7**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. 2. Decimal? No Place Holder(s)! YES! 3. Final answer and alternates! 10. r e 9 1 0 . 11**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.0016 0.0015 0.0017 p p p r e 0 0 6 0 1 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. 2. Decimal? NO! and Place Holder(s)! 3. Final answer and alternates! 1.0x10+2 r e p 90 1 0 0 110**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.0010 0.0009 0.0011 p p p r e 0 0 0 0 1 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.013 0.012 0.014 p p r e 0 0 6 1 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.08 0.09 0.07 p p e 0 0 8 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.008 0.009 0.007 p p p e 0 0 0 8 .**Notes Three Unit Three**• Quiz Reading Scales/Review Check • The Importance of Measurement • Accuracy and Precision • Scientific Notation • Significant Digit Rules • Addition and Subtraction • Computer Assignment Number Two Pages 56-64**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. 2. Decimal? YES! No Place Holder(s)! 3. Final answer and alternates! 100. r r e 99 1 0 0 . 101**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. and Place Holder(s) 2. Decimal? Yes! 3. Final answer and alternates! 0.10 0.11 0.09 p r e 0 0 1 .**Reading Scales**1. Evaluate one digit at a time. 2. Decimal? YES! No Place Holder(s)! 3. Final answer and alternates! 10.0 r r e 9.9 1 0 . 0 10.1**Qualitative**The Importance of Measurement Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative measurements (OBSERVATIONS) Quantitative measurements (SCALES) red 12.0 g/mol liquid 2 eggs 1 dozen 4 legs 1.0 g/mL 25 years old 250 pounds Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative**Accuracy and Precision**• Accuracycloseness to the actual answer. • Precisionhow well measurements compare. Good Precision Good Accuracy Good Precision Poor Accuracy Poor Precision Poor Accuracy**SIGNIFICANT DIGIT RULES**• 1. All non zero digits are significant. • 2. Any digit, including zero, read or estimated from a scale is significant. • 3. Leading zeroes in numbers are never significant: the three first zeroes in 0.0010 are leading zeroes; therefore, they are not significant. They are, also, never read or estimated form a scale. Leading zeroes show place value. • 4. Trailing zeroes are significant if a decimal is present. The zeroes in 400.0 and 400. are identified as significant by the decimal. Leading zeroes cannot be made significant by a decimal. • 5. Only significant digits can be expressed in scientific notation**Scientific Notation**• In scientific notation a number is written as a power of 10. • 41200 is… • 4.12x10+4 • 0.0400 is… • 4.00x10-2 • 301 is… • 3.01x10+2 • 0.00560 is… • 5.60x10-3 • 4.12E+4 • 4.00E-2 • 3.01E+2 • 5.60 E-3**Identifying Significant Digits**• 400 • 400 • 400. • 400. • 0.001 • 0.001 • 2505 • 2505 • 2X10-2 • 2X10-2 • 0.020 • 0.020**Identifying Significant Digits**• 401 • 401 • 404. • 404. • 0.001001 • 0.001001 • 2100 • 2100 • 2.00X10-2 • 2.00X10-2 • 0.120 • 0.120**Identifying Significant Digits**• 200 • 200 • 200. • 200. • 0.00220 • 0.00220 • 2202 • 2202 • 2.93X10-2 • 2.93X10-2 • 1.000 • 1.000**Identifying The Estimated Digit**• 400 • 400 • 400. • 400. • 0.001 • 0.001 • 2505 • 2505 • 2X10-2 • 2X10-2 • 0.020 • 0.020**Identifying The Estimated Digit**• 401 • 401 • 404. • 404. • 0.001001 • 0.001001 • 2100 • 2100 • 2.00X10-2 • 2.00X10-2 • 0.120 • 0.120