El presente perfecto de indicativo y subjuntivo
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El Presente Perfecto de Indicativo y Subjuntivo. Comparación de los dos. ¿Qué es el presente perfecto de indicativo?. The present perfect is formed by combining a helping verb (“ have ” or “has”) with the past participle. Veamos, por ejemplo…. I have played the piano for years .

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Qu es el presente perfecto de indicativo l.jpg
¿Qué es el presente perfecto de indicativo?

Thepresentperfectisformedbycombining a helpingverb (“have” or “has”) withthepastparticiple


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Veamos, por ejemplo…

  • I haveplayedthe piano foryears.

  • Martha has sung at weddings.

  • Wehaveflown in a plane.


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En inglés…

  • Toformthepresentparticiple,we combine thehelpingverb “have/has” with a pastparticiple (-ed/-en):

    • Forexample, “I havebeen a lifeguard.”

      • “I” isthesubject

      • “have” isthehelpingverb

      • “been” isthepastparticiple


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En español…

  • Weformthepresentparticiplebycombiningthepresent tense of theverbhaber (i.e., thehelpingverborel verbo auxiliar)with a pastparticiple

    • Forexample:

      • Nosotros hemos bailado y….

        Wehavedanced and….

      • no hemos estudiado para el examen.

        Wehaven’tstudiedforthe test.



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Remember…

Howtoformthepastparticiple:

  • For –arverbs, takethestem of theverb and add –ado

    Example: comprar → comprado

  • For–er and –irverbs, takethestem of theverb and add–ido

    Example: tener → tenido

    vivir→ vivido


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Para formar…

Here are the present perfect forms of estudiar:


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Para formar…

As you can see, I havecombinedthepresentforms of haber (thehelpingverbs)


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…with the past participle of estudiar


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Now you try…

On a sheet of paper, see if you can figure out the present perfect forms for the verb hablar:



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Let’s try another…

Now see if you can form the present perfect forms of the verb tomar:



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Now let’s try an –er verb

See if you can come up with the present perfect forms for comer:




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Is this what you came up with? present perfect tense of


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Many present perfect tense of of youmayhaveassumedthatir hadan irregular pastparticiple. Afterall, itdoeshavean irregular presentparticiple. Butirisactually regular in this tense. Here are someverbsthatare irregular in thepastparticiple.


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Not exactly irregular but… present perfect tense of

-er and –ir verbs whose stems end in a vowel have past participles ending in –ído

caer → caído creer → creído

leer → leído oír → oído

reír → reído traer → traído


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Irregulars present perfect tense of

Thefollowingverbshave irregular pastparticiplesending in –to:

abrir → abierto cubrir → cubierto

escribir → escrito volver → vuelto

morir → muerto poner → puesto

romper → roto ver → visto

descubrir → descubierto


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More irregulars present perfect tense of

These verbs have irregular past participles ending in –cho:

decir → dicho

hacer → hecho


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¡Vamos a practicar! present perfect tense of

Seeifyou can formthecorrectpresentperfectusingthesubject and verbgiven.

Modelo: yo / decidir → He decidido

1. ella / abrir

Ha abierto

2. Marta y yo / tocar

Hemos tocado

3. Gonzalo / crecer

Ha crecido


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4. Tú y tus amigos / reír present perfect tense of

Habéis reído

5. Mis padres / hacer

Han hecho

6. Tus abuelos / cubrir

Han cubierto

7. Rogelio y Ramón / escribir

Han escrito


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Ella present perfect tense of ha cambiadounallantadesinfladavariasveces.

She’s changed a flat tire several times.

Todavíano lehanrevisado el aceite al coche.

They still haven’t checked the car’s oil.

  • Object pronouns and no are always placed directly before the form of haber, e.g.:

  • The present perfect form of hay is always ha habido ( there has/have been) , e.g.:

  • Remember that acabar + de + infinitive (not the present perfect tense) is used to state that something has just occurred, e.g.:

Ha habido un accidente.

(There’s been an accident.)

Acabo de mandar la carta.

I’ve just mailed the letter.


Qu es el presente perfecto de subjuntivo l.jpg
¿Qué es el presente perfecto de subjuntivo? present perfect tense of

hayahabladohayamoshablado

hayashabladohayáishablado

hayahabladohayanhablado

The present perfect subjunctive (el perfecto subjuntivo) is formed with the present subjunctive of haberplus the past participle. It is used to express I have spoken(written, and so on) when the subjunctive is required.


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Es present perfect tense of posibleque (él) lo hayahecho.

It’s possible (that) he may have done he did it.

Me alegro de que (tú) hayasvenido.

I’m glad (that) you have come (you came).

Es buenoque lo hayanconstruido.

It’s good (that) they built (have built) it.

Note in the model sentence at the right that the English equivalent of the present perfect subjunctive can be expressed as a simple or compound tense: did/have done; came/have come; built/have built.


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The perfect subjunctive differs from the present subjunctive in that it conveys the meaning of an action which would, or might have taken place, i.e. a finished action

Compare a) with b):

a) Esperoquelleguen a tiempoparacoger el avión (I hope they arrive on time to catch the plane)

b) Esperoquehayanllegado a tiempoparacoger el avión(I hope they arrived on time so that they could catch the place)


Vamos a practicar con el pret rito perfecto l.jpg
¡ in that it conveys the meaning of an action which would, or might have taken place, i.e. a finished actionVamos a practicar con el pretérito perfecto!