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  1. Presentation to the EMBARQ/STE Mexico City Meeting Road-Based Public Transport, Mobility and Emissions George Darido Senior Consultant Mexico City 9 April 03 This document is confidential and is intended solely for the use and information of the client to whom it is addressed.

  2. Contents 1. Multi-Modal Modeling of Corridor Mobility and Emissions 2. Experience with Emissions Testing and Modeling Data 3. U.S. Initiatives on Implementing “Bus Rapid Transit” 4. General Observations

  3. 1. Multi-Modal Corridor Model (Darido, 2001) Objective: • A simple, spreadsheet-based tool for estimating the costs and benefits of public transport options in terms of the impact on corridor mobility and emissions from public and private transport modes. Key Model Inputs and Outputs: • Basic Corridor Parameters (e.g. length, capacity, peak/off-peak factors) • Vehicle Count & Mode Share on Corridor • Passenger Mode Split • Vehicle Emission Characteristics • Passenger Trip Costs by Mode (wait time + travel time + fare) • Total Emissions by Mode and by Pollutant (Weighed by Toxicity) • Impact on Bus and Colectivo Costs and Revenues

  4. 1. Multi-Modal Corridor Model (Darido, 2001) Key Assumptions: • Characteristics of operating behavior : • Colectivos have no fixed schedule, are responsive to changes in corridor passenger trip demand, and are profit maximizing • Scheduled bus service run at a pre-determined frequency • Relative value of time estimates by mode • Only the mode choice interaction between bus and colectivo was considered and it was based on the relative difference between the total trip costs of each mode (proxy measure for mobility) Key Limitations: • Lacks a link with actual geographic, socio-economic, and demographic data • Does not capture network effects such as the exchange between intersecting corridors • Assumes public transport riders to be entirely “captive”

  5. 1. Sample Emission Factors (COMETRAVI, 1999)

  6. 1. Model Results for a Hypothetical Corridor (Darido, 2001) Reduced level of service has a negative impact on corridor mobility Better to integrate buses and colectivos than to compete Less Emissions Improved Mobility ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

  7. 1. Key Findings • This type of quantitative analysis can be very useful for developing estimates and identifying any unintended consequences • The model or the results could also be useful for consensus building with public, industry, operators, etc. during alternatives analysis • The methodology could be used to analyze many potential trade-offs (e.g. emissions v. mobility, emission v. financial viability of corridor) • Increased congestion decreases the profitability of both colectivo and bus modes • The level of congestion is a key factor in determining whether a measure will cause an increase or decrease in mobility costs and emissions on the corridor

  8. 2. Booz Allen’s Prototype Evaluation of New Technology Buses for Boston MBTA • The MBTA contracted with West Virginia University and Booz Allen to conduct emissions testing on the two CNG buses (New Flyer), the two hybrid-electric buses (Orion Bus/Lockheed Martin), two diesel buses with 1995 engines, and two diesel buses with "new" engines. The buses were placed in service for a 6-month period and evaluated periodically. During the emissions tests, one of the new diesel engines and one of the hybrid-electric diesel engines were tested using ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD)

  9. 2. Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer • West Virginia University Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories:

  10. 2. Customizing Drive Cycles for Vehicle Testing

  11. 3. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a Flexible and Integrated Package of Rubber-Tire Transit Components... • Vehicles • Guideway • Control Systems • Fare Systems • Passenger Information Systems TECHNOLOGY CUSTOMER INTERFACE BRT • Fare Structure • Marketing Strategy • Safety and Security • Travel Information • Physical Design • Urban Design OPERATING PLAN • Network Structure • Route Structure • Service Frequency • Service Span • Station Spacing • Integration with other Modes

  12. 3. BRT Spans the Spectrum of High Quality Transit Services Between Conventional Fixed Route Bus and the Fixed Guideway Systems Conventional Bus BUS RAPID TRANSIT Fixed Guideway Transit • Objectives and Potential Benefits of Bus Rapid Transit Systems: • Increase Ridership (New and Existing Transit Riders) • Reduce overall transit travel times with more direct, frequent, and integrated services • Decrease access times, wait times, dwell times, in-vehicle times, and/or transfer times • Promote transit-oriented land development and a pedestrian-friendly environment • Increase trip reliability and predictability • Increase comfort and convenience • Increase system ease-of-use and coherence • Enhance safety and security • Reduce environmental impacts • Enhance a community’s overall mobility and accessibility by increasing transit ridership • Supply high-quality, high-capacity transit services for less than the cost of rail

  13. 3. Combining Technology Innovation and Operating Plans Increases Overall Bus Speeds Conventional BRT 50 40 Average Speed (including stops) (km / hr) 30 20 10 0 Quito Vancouver (B-Line) Leeds London Ottawa Curitiba Montreal Porto Alegre Quebec City Sao Paulo (VLP) Sao Paulo (Conv.)

  14. 3. Potential Cost Savings Observed Might Enable More Expansive Network Development LRT Fully-Equipped BRT Simple BRT 50 100 150 0 System Route Miles Constructed with $500M (not including Right-of-Way)

  15. 3. Bus Rapid Transit Vehicle Solutions Fill Out a Spectrum of Line Capacities Seated Fully Loaded Standard 40 foot bus Articulated bus Two 40 foot buses in convoy One articulated light rail car Three 40 foot buses in convoy Bi-articulated bus Two articulated light rail cars 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Capacity (Passengers per hour per direction at two minute headway)

  16. Las Vegas U.S. Federal Transit AdministrationBus Rapid Transit Program Sites Demonstration Projects: • Boston, MA - Silver Line • Charlotte, NC - Southeast Corridor • Cleveland, OH - Euclid Corridor • Eugene, OR - Pilot East-West Corridor • Hartford, CT - Hartford-New Britain Busway • Honolulu, HI - CityExpress! • Los Angeles, CA - Metro Rapid • Miami, FL - South Miami-Dade Busway • Northern VA - Dulles Corridor • San Juan, PR - Río Hondo Connector • Santa Clara, CA - Line 22 Rapid Transit Corridor Participating Projects: • Alameda and Contra Costa, CA - San Pablo and Telegraph/ International/East 14th Corridors • Albany, NY - Best Bus Program • Chicago, IL - Neighborhood Express Bus Routes • Las Vegas, NV – Civis Bus Service • Louisville, KY - Transportation Tomorrow • Montgomery County, MD - Veirs Mill Road Bus Priority Project • Pittsburgh, PA - West Busway

  17. 3. The U.S. FTA is Considering a Redefinition and Classification of BRT into Stages/Types to Promote... • Incremental Development • Lower obstacles to deployment • Opportunity to build public support as the project progresses • Customized/Optimized Implementation • by Stage or Type: • by Component: • Running Ways • Stations • Vehicles • Service • Route Structure • Fare Collection • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

  18. BRT Stage/Type I - Schematic

  19. BRT Stage/Type I - Examples

  20. BRT Stage/Type II - Schematic

  21. BRT Stage/Type II - Examples Queue Jumper in Charlotte, NC Cleveland, OH (Proposed) LED Display in Los Angeles

  22. BRT Stage/Type III - Schematic

  23. BRT Stage/Type III - Examples Proposed BRT System in Eugene. OR

  24. BRT Stage/Type IV - Schematic

  25. BRT Stage/Type IV - Examples Seattle, WA Civis Bus in Las Vegas, NV Cross-Section of Proposed BRT Station in Dulles Corridor, VA

  26. 3. Also Under Development/Consideration... • BRT Procurement Methods and Strategies • Review of Procurement Planning, Methods and Mechanisms • Outlining the development of a BRT Standard Bus Procurement Guidelines (i.e. BRT “White Book”) for the United States • BRT and Fare Collection Issues • BRT and Land Use/Development Issues • Decision-Makers Tool to assist next generation projects with the corridor demand parameters and the BRT component choices by type and the service, cost and benefit impacts • Project Evaluation and Technical Assistance • Lessons learned • Benefits and impacts

  27. 4. General Observations • Local air pollution (non-GHG) can be managed • The level of understanding is increasing • Focus should turn to estimating results (modeling)and implementation of projects (i.e., the “corredores”) • Mexico has a great opportunity to take advantageof a two-way knowledge exchange of BRT • North to South • South to North Technology (ITS, Alt. Fuels) Project Management Standards Bus Rapid Transit Implementation Operations and Capacity Governance

  28. Thank you for your attention... Georges Darido Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. tel: (1) 703-902-4899 email: darido_georges@bah.com