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  1. Wageningen International Centre of Excellence on Development of Sustainable Leisure

  2. The Netherlands: A Rural and Agri Tourist Product • Drs Jan W. te Kloeze • Chairman WICE-DSL • P.O.Box 544 • 4100 AM Culemborg • The Netherlands • T. + 31 (0) 26 4722639 • E-mail jan.tekloeze@wice-dsl.nl

  3. Content • Rural tourism – agritourism – definitions • Products • Agritourist entrepreneurs - gender • Agritourists; target groups • Economic aspects • Organisational aspects • Policy aspects • Promotional aspects

  4. Rural Tourism DefinitionsRural TourismThat part of tourism based on activities of agrarians with touristic side activities and of entrepreneurs in the rural areas with tourist side activities, and the use of this supply by recreationists and tourists.Four types:● agritourism [agrotourism]● cultural tourism [heritage tourism]● ecotourism● active tourism [sport and adventure tourism]AgritourismPart of rural tourism taking place at farmsSource: Stichting Recreatie, Plattelandstoerisme in Europa [Rural Tourism in Europe], 2005

  5. Why Rural Tourism? • Generating income and jobs • Exchange between rural and urban areas • Multiplier effect while relatively small scale • directinvestments • Strengthening local and regional structures by • creating networks • Stimulating physical infrastructural developments • Enlarging diversity of economic developments • Awareness of values of an area [landscape, nature, • culture, and its economic potential] • Source: Stichting Recreatie, • Plattelandstoerisme in Europa [Rural • Tourism in Europe], 2005

  6. Features of Rural Tourism● seasonality● fragmentation; co-operation needed● internal and external markets; external markets needed● role of women● economic role: side income for farmers and other entrepreneurs in the rural areaSource: Stichting Recreatie, Plattelandstoerisme in Europa [Rural Tourism in Europe], 2005

  7. Elements of the Rural Tourism Product● Accommodations● Attractions● Supply of activities [e.g. horse riding]● Events [e.g. farmers’ fairs]● Service [restaurant; hospitality]● Transport [infrastructure; e.g. rail service]● Sustaining services [explaining touristic routes]Source: Stichting Recreatie, Plattelandstoerisme in Europa [Rural Tourism in Europe], 2005

  8. Scheme 1. A Complete Product: “the 5 A’s of the Rural Tourism Holiday Network”Accommo- Access Available Amenities Activitiesdation Facilities services Caravan sites Airport Bank Scenery AttractionsCamp sites Rail service Taxi Lakes Pubs Hostels Bus Car hire Landscape Walks Small Hotels Booking and Boat hire Mountains Fishing Self catering reservation Restau- Forest VisitorB & B Website faci- rants Rivers farms lities Shops Source: Heneghan, 2002

  9. Agritourism in the Netherlands Some theoretical notions Demand ↔ Supply Demand * Demographic changes * Changes in value orientations Small-scaledness [small scale tourism versus mass tourism] * Authenticity Nostalgia * Variety of distinctive products [cf. Bourdieu] Supply * European and national agricultural policy * Pluri-activity * Alternative sources of income

  10. Scheme 2 Definitions of tourism products Characteristics Rural Tourism Agritourism Farm Tourism Core Product Rural environment Farm Products Life on a farmSports and recreation Agrarian Way of LifeRural festivities Agrarian festivitiesSecondary Holiday villages Stay at ‘active’ farms Stay at farms products Countryside hotels Use of agrarian space Stay at private homes Camp sites Camping Places to eat Meals Meals Animation Recreation Recreation Shops Shops Signposting InformationSource: Bubendorf, 1994: 15

  11. Definition agritourism "Agritourism comprises all forms of tourism that are directly connected with the agrarian environment, agrarian products or agrarian stays" (Te Kloeze, 1993).Agritourism in the Netherlands = camping at a farm In France: camping à la ferme; chambre d’hôte; table d’hôte

  12. Agritourism in the Netherlands Offering* accommodation: * camp site at the farm (quantitatively the main product) * apartments * rooms * bed and breakfastSelling* meals* home-made farm products* handicraftsGuidingCultural aspects of agritourism* visiting archaeological sites as part of the so-called 'knapsack routes‘; * agritourist or rural museums; * farm & country fairs; * cultural festivals in the countryside; and * cultural and natural heritage in the countryside

  13. Camping at a farm, The Netherlands

  14. Table 1. Agrarian Enterprises with accommodation for lodging [The Netherlands], per provinceRegion Agrarian enterprises with accommodation for lodgingThe Netherlands 2463Groningen 63Friesland 163Drenthe 129Overijssel 273Flevoland 44Gelderland 400Utrecht 92North Holland 238 South Holland 198Zealand 329North Brabant 328Limburg 206Source: Landbouwtelling 2003

  15. Table 2. Agrarian businesses according to type of business (in percentages) Type of business Agrarian business Total agrarian sector in with camp sites the NetherlandsAgriculture business 25 13 Dairy farm 25 34Mixed farm 25 5Rest 26 48 Total 100 100 [379] [133.844]Source: CBS, 1987

  16. Table 3. Costs and benefits from offering camping facilities at the farm [Province of Zealand, 1986]Gross yield Dfl. 12.600 Fixed costs Dfl. 2.900Variable costs Dfl. 2.300Net yield agritourism Dfl. 7.400 [275 working hours] = Dfl. 27 / hour [Euro 12.--]Net yield agriculture [1986] Dfl. 16 / hour [Euro 7.--] Source: Voskuilen and Van Elk [1989]

  17. Table 4. Part of income from mini camp site as percentage of the total income of the farm household, Province of Zealand and other parts of the Netherlands, 1988 (percentages)Part Zealand other parts of the Netherlandsnihil / small 1 22± 1% 11 32± 5% 16 21± 10% 15 11± 20% 25 7> 20% 32 7 100 [103] 100 [272]Source: Te Kloeze [1990]Remark: The Province of Zealand [coastal area] is touristically very attractiveConclusion: Strong relationship between part of income derived from agritourism and touristic attractiveness of the area in questions

  18. Table 5. Part of income from letting groupaccommodation at the farm as percentage of total income of the farm household, the Netherlands, 1992 (percentages)Part The Netherlands0% 3 7± 1% 3 7± 5% 3 7± 10% 12 25± 25% 9 18> 25% 15 33100% 2 5unknown 23 .no answer 30 . 100 [130] 100 [61]Source: Ubaghs [1992]

  19. Table 6. Part of income from letting rooms as percentage of total income of the farm household, the Netherlands, 1992 (percentages)Part The Netherlands0% 1 3± 1% 8 17± 5% 13 30± 10% 6 13± 25% 9 20> 25% 8 17unknown 14 .no answer 41 . 100 [66] 100 [30]Source: Ubaghs (1992)

  20. Table 7. Number of stays at 'mini camp sites' and regular camp sites in the Netherlands; 1993-1995 (estimation); benefits (estimation)see also slide 21 Mini camp sites costs of stay benefits for regular camp s. p.p.p.n. the local community [Dfl. 3] [Dfl. 15¹ ???]1993: 963.000 stays Dfl. 2,889,000 14,445,000 25,551,200 stays1994: 1,300,000 Dfl. 3,900,000 19,500,000 24,864,000 35% increase - 2,7% decrease1995 1,500,000 Dfl. 4,500,000 22,500,000 [Euro 2,045,000] - 9,5 % decrease + 15% increase¹ baker, butcher, supermarket, petrol, [farmers’] market, souvenirs, tourist recreative visitsSource: SVR [Stichting Vrije Recreatie; Foundation for Free Recreation] + NBT [Nationaal Bureau voor Toerisme; National Tourism Board]

  21. Net Yield Agritourism in the Netherlands 1995Gross Yield Dfl. 21,400.--Fixed costs -- 6,400.-- (minus)Variable costs -- 7,000.-- (minus)Net Yield Dfl. 8,000.--Variation Gross Yield:between Dfl. 1,000.-- and 70,000.--1/4 of all enterprises : < Dfl. 5,000.--1/3 of all enterprises : > Dfl. 25,000.--Income derived from:agrarian part of the enterprise : 66%agritourism : 17%other sources (outside the farm) : 17%Number of working hours agritourism : 470Net Yield Agritourism : Dfl. 17.--/hourThe Netherlands:Number of agritourism businesses : 2.258Gross Yield : Dfl. 48,000,000.--Net Yield (income from agritourism) : Dfl. 25,000,000.—Source: LEI [Agricultural Economic Institute, 1998]

  22. GenderTable 8. Task sharing between husband/wife (farmer/farmer's wife) in agritourist businesses (letting group accommodation) (The Netherlands, 1992) (percentages) Daily Paper- Cleaning Cleaning Mainte- manage- work facilities accommo- nance/ ment dations repara- tions♀ only 31 42 41 53 29 37 30 39 1 1 ♂ only 12 15 20 26 5 7 5 6 52 68♀+♂ only 19 26 11 14 18 23 11 14 5 7Others(s) 13 17 5 7 26 33 31 41 19 24? 25 . 23 . 22 . 23 . 23 .Total %% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100N = 130 98 130 100 130 101 130 100 130 100Source: Ubaghs [1992]

  23. CitationThe importance of the role of the farmer's wife is clear in the division of labour in the recreational subsidiary business. She has the lion's share of all the tasks:"Most of the work is now done by my wife. She settles the accounts, cleans the toilets and showers etc. The toilets are closed in the mornings from 11.15 to 12.00. Everyone knows this and it runs smoothly. I mow the field once a week which takes about half a day. We have a container for the rubbish which is collected once a week during the summer, so that is hardly any bother to me at all".[Te Kloeze, 2000: 11]

  24. Table 9. Task sharing between husband/wife (farmer/farmer's wife) in agritourist businesses (letting rooms) (The Netherlands, 1992) (percentages) Daily Paper- Cleaning Cleaning Mainte- manage- work facilities accommo- nance/ ment dations repara- tions♀ only 35 55 44 71 44 71 47 76 5 7 ♂ only 3 5 17 27 2 2 - - 41 66♀+♂ only 24 38 1 2 9 15 6 10 5 7Others(s) 2 2 - - 7 12 9 14 11 29? 36 . 38 . 38 . 38 . 38 .Total %% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100N = 66 42 66 41 66 41 66 41 66 41Source: Ubaghs [1992]

  25. Table 10. Groups of camp site owners, The Netherlands [farmers only; N = 374] Degree of commercialisation and Degree of idealist motives professionalisation Less socially More socially oriented oriented Less commercially and Pragmatic Idealist professionally minded type [27%] type [27%] More commercially and Professional Idealist - professionally minded type [20%] professional type [27%] Source: Te Kloeze, 1990

  26. Table 11. Typology of farm campers, The Netherlands [N = 731] Desire for comfort: Camping at the farm: Less desire for More desire fora matter of principle comfort comfortLess principly Pragmatic Comfort oriented type [33%] type [21%]More principly Principle Complex type [20%] type [27%]Source: Te Kloeze, 1990  Various target groups How to match between supply types and demand types? Consequences for promotion!!!

  27. Campers in France

  28. Table 12. Motives for offering agritourist facilities [in percentages] • Motives for Motives for Motives for offering camping offering camping offering Bed & facilities facilities Breakfast [Zonneveld, 1988] Appeldoorn et al,, Appeldoorn et al., 1994 1994Financial 21,6% 20,6% 16,2%Contacts and 21,1% 17,6% 48,6% socialibilityTo let city people 15,7% 14,7% 2,7% enjoyOpportunity and 15,7% 14,7% 13,5% space availableTo meet the 9,5% 8,8% 5,4% demandTo improve the 3,3% 5,9% 8,2% image of the agricultural businessTo spend time 1,2% 0,0% 2,7% usefullyTotal N = 421 N = 35 N = 38Source: Zonneveld, 1988; Appeldoorn et al., 1994

  29. Organisations Agritourism in the Netherlands● SVR: Stichting Vrije Recreatie – Foundation for FreeRecreation [> 1,750 businesses in the Netherlands, 250 elsewhere in Europe; > 150,000 supporters ~ appr. 1/2 million tourists]www.svr.nl● VEKABO:Vereniging van Kampeerboeren – Union of farmers exploiting a camp site [1,600 businesses in the Netherlands] www.vekabo.nl● ECEAT: European Centre for Eco Agro Tourism [968 businesses, 25 European countries; 168 businesses in the Netherlands]www.eceat.nl and www.groenevakantiegids.nlAgritourism and Network products in the Netherlands [examples]:● Knapsack tourism in the Province of Drenthe● Hof van Twente [Garden of Twente]

  30. Table 13. Interest in possible arrangements in the Province of Brabant and the Province of Friesland [The Netherlands, 1993]Brabant FrieslandVisiting Recreation Park Cycling combined with combined withcycling 22% nature rambling 20%nature rambling 20% boat tour 26%covered wagon tour 10% visiting museum 14%horse riding lessons 10% covered wagon tour 10%city walk 7% city walk 10% canoeing 8% horse riding lessons 10% canoeing 7%Nature rambling Boat tour combined with combined withcycling 20% cycling 26% visiting zoo 10% nature rambling 13% covered wagon tour 5% covered wagon tour 9% visiting recr. Park 7% horse riding lessons 8% horse riding lessons 5% city walk 7% canoeing 6%Source: Consument and Arrangement (1993)

  31. Table 14. Number of Eco Agro Touristic Farms in 25 European countries affiliated with ECEAT, 2009 France 329 The Netherlands 168 Spain 65 Belgium 50 Poland 48Germany 41 Portugal 40 Italy 38 United Kingdom 31 Finland 21 15 other European countries 137 Total 968 Source: ECEAT (2009)

  32. Eceat campsite

  33. Scheme 3 Organisations in the Netherlands offering agritourist accommodations (situation 1998) SVR VEKABO ECEATWho is organised Producers + Producers Producers ConsumersSupply Camp site Camp site Camp site Letting rooms Letting rooms Letting rooms Apartments Apartments Apartments Meals Guiding Eco HotelsArea The Netherlands The Netherlands Europe [> 1,750 addresses] [1,600 addresses] [968 addresses] Europe The Netherlands [250 addresses] [168 addresses] [> 150,000 supporters = ½ million tourists]Price Low Relatively high Low [controlled by SVR] [free to determine]Information Consumers [donaters] Buying a brochure Buying a € 12.50/year; brochure addresses freeEcological Not especially Not especially Yes

  34. Agritourist initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (Wageningen students research)Dobrinishte (village in South Bulgaria) (Willem Geldof)Zemplén Hills (North East Hungary) (Jolanda Vrolijk)Kłodzko Region (South Poland) (Job Boersma)Danube Delta (East Rumania) (Mark de Vries)All thesis research on 'the possibilities of agritourism in ...'.Main results concern:● (apart from nature + culture) main aspect of 'agritourist product': hospitality● lack of money to start initiatives● lack of taking initiative (awaiting attitude; 50 years of communist rule)● lack of knowledge how to start with (management; promotion)

  35. Poland

  36. Table 15. Comparison of the ideas of rural residents (RR) and officials (OF) about the development of agritourism (Kłodzko Region, Poland) RR % OF %% Good facilities and infrastructural 7 18 5 11 provisions should be made Governments should take action 4 10 2 4 Better foundations, credit, 9 23 3 6 taxes etc. are needed The mentality of farmers has to 3 8 10 21 change Source: Te Kloeze and Boersma (1996)

  37. Table 16. Financial support for rural development in the NetherlandsEuropean Union Euro share in %%financial support for15 EU Countries, 2000 – 2006 32,905,900,000 100%10 EU Countries, 2004 – 2006 5,761,000,000 100%The Netherlands [from EU] 417,100,000 1,3% from EUFinancial support by 1,146,050,000 Dutch GovernmentPPart from EU 509,000,000 44% from total NL budget[this figure differs from figure above]Source: European Commission, 2003

  38. Agritourist policy in EuropeTwo models:Dispersion of tasks model: agritourism support role divided among various public agencies with appropriate responsibilities(National Tourism Organisation, the Ministry of Agriculture, The Agricultural Bank etc.)Austria, West Germany, Britain, SwitzerlandConcentration of tasks model: 'support service' provided for agritourism by an independent agency, following a two-tier system (including a central agency and local offices) France: National Federation of the Gîtes de France and the local departments (Relais Departemental)Strong governmental support in Greece, Spain, Portugal, IrelandThe Netherlands: policy of the so-called 'Valuable Man-made Landscapes' (protection of nature and culture; restrictive measures against large scale agriculture and bio industry). Very appropriate for agritourist development.Policy of renewing the countryside.In the Netherlands: no direct support of agritourist entrepreneurs by Dutch government.

  39. Examples of renewing the countryside in the Netherlands:• Agritourism (hosts and hostesses; camp site on the farm; farm restaurants; excursions; festivals; walks; bicycle tours)• Architects of nature and landscape (combination of farm enterprise + regional environmental policy + regional economy) • Building chains (processing and direct marketing of farm products by creating own chains) • Producers of richly varied fare (regional quality, ecological)• Product innovation (new products and services: rural development, social and economic strengthening of the countryside)• Providing care ('care' farm; workers: mentally handicapped people)• Small-scaled entrepreneurship; birth place of new economic activity• Environmental experts (clean and sustainable agriculture and horticulture)Source: Van Broekhuizen, Klep and Oostindie (1997)

  40. Some instruments for Rural Development Policy in the NetherlandsSpatial planning (VROM 1990): every rural area in the Netherlands is supposed to be part of a certain 'zone'._ Green zone : nature development_ Yellow zone : development concentrated intensive agrarian activities_ Brown zone : variety of soil bound agriculture together with other functions_ Blue zone : renewal of rural areas; interweaving of functionsRenewal of rural areas: regional economical and spatial development of rural areas pointed at differentiation of functions; agriculture and other forms of use of space (forestry, nature management and development, water supply, recreation, tourism etc.).Ecological Main Structure and Valuable Man-made Landscapes: attractive landscape, a rich cultural heritage, beautiful nature and many possibilities for recreation and tourism.11 Valuable Man-made Landscapes in the Netherlands: e.g. South West Friesland.The Ecological Main Structure is mainly concentrated in Green and Blue Zone areas. New facilities for residential recreation and tourist attractions will be kept away (in principle).

  41. Russian Federation – TatarstanCollectivisation [also example Viet Nam]TISBI Management Expertise

  42. Conclusions:- In Western Europe: agritourism side income for farmers’ families- In Central and Eastern Europe: agritourism can be main income- Agritourists: Special target groups- Revival of countryside; employment- Carrying capacity for rural life, heritage, nature: farmers AND tourists- Women’s affair- Sustainability- Financial support, policy: different approaches- What about opportunities in countries with [former] collectivised agriculture? [Small private farms?]- Focus on domestic tourists and/or international tourists- Opportunities in terms of “village tourism”, small scale tourism, green tourism- Organisational: Topdown? Bottom-up? Which [tourism] organisation[s] should facilitate farmers’ families? Role of Ministry? Over-regulation. Under-regulation. Role private sector? Legal aspects?