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Lipids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lipids. “Fat, what good is it?”. Lipids. Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents Roles Nutritional Structural regulatory. Types of Lipids. Glycerol-based Sphingolipids Steroids Eicosanoids/leukotrienes. Storage Lipids. Fatty acids Saturated and Unsaturated

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“Fat, what good is it?”

  • Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents
  • Roles
    • Nutritional
    • Structural
    • regulatory
types of lipids
Types of Lipids
  • Glycerol-based
  • Sphingolipids
  • Steroids
  • Eicosanoids/leukotrienes
storage lipids
Storage Lipids
  • Fatty acids
    • Saturated and Unsaturated
      • Relationship to melting point
  • Triacylglycerides
    • Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
  • Waxes
glycerol based fats
Glycerol based fats
  • Glycerol on the left
  • Esterifies to 3 fatty acids
  • Glycerol in blue
  • Fatty acids in red
  • Condensation produces 3 water molecules
  • Very nonpolar…excludes water
lipids in membranes
Lipids in Membranes:
  • Phospholipids
  • Cholesterol
  • Glycolipds: Sugar group attached
  • Proteins: either integral or peripheral
  • Sphingolipids
  • Glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids.
  • Third position is phosphate
  • Other end of phosphate can combine with other molecules to form various derivatives
  • amphipathic
  • Sphingosine instead of glycerol
  • Derivatized at ester C1
  • Fatty acids added at amine
  • Different types are found in plasma membrane and myelin sheaths
  • Gangliosides
    • cell to cell interactions
    • antigenic
role of cholesterol
Role of Cholesterol
  • Keeps the lipids in membrane from aggregrating: Keeps the membrane intact as a bilayer
  • Precursor to Bile Acids
    • Act as detergentsto dissolve dietary fats
    • Fats can be broken better by enzymes
  • Precursor to steroid hormones that regulate gene expression
  • Precursor to Vitamin D
good vs bad cholesterol
Good vs. Bad Cholesterol
  • Related to lipoproteins (protein + lipid complexes)
  • Dietary excess fat is packaged into VLDL
  • Fat cells (adipose cells) take these up convert to fatty acids
  • Some VLDL is converted to LDL
  • LDL is very rich in Cholesterol
  • Too much LDL can circulate in the blood
  • Build up in arteries; lead to heart attack
  • Another lipoprotein that converts cholesterol into a lipoprotein that returns to the liver ; Removes cholesterol out of the bloodstream;
  • believed to prevent heart attacks
ratio of ldl to hdl
Ratio of LDL to HDL
  • LDL cholesterol of less than 100 mg/dL is the optimal level. Less than 130 mg/dL is near optimal for most people.
  • A high LDL level (more than 160 mg/dL or 130 mg/dL or above if you have two or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease) reflects an increased risk of heart disease
  • Low HDL cholesterol levels [less than 40 mg/dL] is thought to increase the risk for heart disease.
  • Prostaglandins: different types
    • Some stimulate contraction of smooth muscle during menstruation and labor
    • Others produce fever and inflammation and pain
  • Thromboxanes: act in the formation of blood clot
  • Leukotrienes: induces contraction of the muscle lining the lungs
    • overproduction leads to asthma