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Unit 4 Section B is different PowerPoint Presentation
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Unit 4 Section B is different

Unit 4 Section B is different

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Unit 4 Section B is different

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  1. Unit 4 Section B is different 1 Outline and evaluate the biological approach to explaining smoking behaviour. (4 marks + 6 marks) 2 A recent large survey on behalf of the Gambling Commission provided a number of interesting findings about gambling behaviour in Great Britain. For example, 57% of the population had gambled on the National Lottery Draw in 2007, although the rate of problem gambling in the adult population was only about 0.6%. Explain some of the difficulties of gathering data about problem gambling. (5 marks) Andy is in his first year at university. He is a shy young man who lacks confidence in himself and worries about meeting new people. Since starting university, Andy has preferred to stay in his room, playing strategy games on the internet with his old school friends. Andy often plays all night which means that he sleeps in and misses his lectures. He is finding his course difficult and fears that he may fail his exams or drop out. Use your knowledge of risk factors in the development of addiction to explain Andy’s addiction to the internet. (6 marks) 3

  2. Three styles, five topics

  3. Methods

  4. Biological, cognitive, learningInitiation, maintenance, relapse Smoking and gambling

  5. Biological, cognitive, learningInitiation, maintenance, relapse Smoking and gambling • Relapse in general: Discuss reasons why relapse occurs in people with addictive behaviour. (5 marks + 5 marks) • Maintenance specific to one model: Outline and evaluate the biological model as an explanation for the maintenance of smoking. (4 marks + 4 marks) • Answers must be specific to gambling / smoking. • Answers must be specific to initiation / maintenance /relapse Gambling 2 marks worth = 50 words Smoking

  6. Quality of written communication also assessed

  7. Biological, cognitive, learningInitiation, maintenance, relapse Smoking and gambling Outline and evaluate one explanation of gambling addiction. (4 marks + 6 marks) You can explain gambling in terms of genetics. There is evidence that gambling runs in families which could be due to genetic factors. Shah et al. conducted a twin study and found that there was a genetic factor in men. Furthermore Black et al found that first degree relatives were at a higher risk of developing gambling than more distant relatives. One particular gene has been identified, the D2 dopamine receptor gene, which is common in people who have addiction problems, such as gamblers. Gamblers experience physiological arousal when gambling which results in the release of dopamine in their brain, thus linking to the D2 receptor gene. However it is difficult to be sure that it was genetic factors and not environmental factors in the gambling in men. Another problem with this research is that not all of the men in the same family become gamblers so this doesn’t support the genetic interpretation. It is difficult to identify particular genes for the addiction problems and without such genes it is hard to claim a cause and effect relationship. 178 words (10 marks should be 200 words)

  8. Risk factors Stress, peers, age, personality

  9. Risk factors Stress, peers, age, personality Application questions • Scenario will mention risk factors. • Best to identify a risk factor (eg stress) explain how and why this could influence vulnerability to internet addiction using relevant research findings. Andy is in his first year at university. He is a shy young man who lacks confidence in himself and worries about meeting new people. Since starting university, Andy has preferred to stay in his room, playing strategy games on the internet with his old school friends. Andy often plays all night which means that he sleeps in and misses his lectures. He is finding his course difficult and fears that he may fail his exams or drop out. (6 marks) Link to psychology

  10. Risk factors Stress, peers, age, personality Application questions

  11. Application mark scheme Just identifying risk factors would result in a mark of 1. Quality of written communication also assessed

  12. Media influences 2 marks worth = 50 words

  13. Media influences

  14. Theory of planned behaviour

  15. Intervention Biological, psychological and public health AO2 Effectiveness

  16. Intervention Biological, psychological and public health

  17. Application mark scheme Just identifying risk factors would result in a mark of 1. Quality of written communication also assessed

  18. Intervention Biological, psychological and public health The first step for Kerry would be to attend motivational interview sessions as these would help to change her attitude so she is back into the frameset of ‘I want to make a change’. This intervention is based upon the cognitive approach because it aims to replace the thoughts of dependency and despair with a more positive outlook. Also clients should feel empowered and even more inspired to quit, without these cognitions it is very unlikely that someone will be successful in changing their behaviour and stopping an addiction. Kerry may also find combining biological therapies helpful as they work to block the unpleasant withdrawal symptoms by filling the craving with a substitute substance. By using the substitute cravings are no more but there is no positive reward associated therefore the person can be weaned off the substitute drug in comfort. However a problem with biological therapies is that they only tackle the addictive behaviour, rather than the underlying causes of what made the person start in the first place. In order to solve this Kerry should also participate in some sort of rehabilitation in order to ensure that abstinence from smoking is maintained. This will ensure that she does not form an addiction to the substitute drug that decreases the craving for nicotine. One rehabilitation example is if she joins a self help group therapy. These are based on a 12 step guide to quitting, the steps being personal to each group. They are run by addicts who provide inspiration to new members. During therapy addicts learn to accept responsibility for their actions and learn that addictions cannot be treated but merely arrested. Kerry would find these sessions beneficial as the other group members would support through quitting smoking but also they would provide positive reinforcement through appraisal of maintaining abstinence from cigarettes. 304 words (10 marks = 250 words)

  19. Covered: • Motivational interview – cognitive • Biological therapies • Problem • Maintenance programme e.g. self group therapy • Beneficial because social support

  20. Intervention Biological, psychological and public health • Know one very well • Biological intervention e.g. Use of SSRIs to increase serotonin for gambling (Hollander et al.) • Psychological intervention e.g. CBT can address cognitive biases. • Public health e.g. Quitlines, repeated callbacks from a counsellor. AO2 Effectiveness Some evidence that it is not effective. Hollander was very small (N=10). Larger and longer study (32 Ps, 6 months) found no benefit (Blanco et al.) Significant improvements in male pathological gamblers (Sylvain et al.), even at one year follow up (relapse prevention). More effective by 50% than brief counselling / self-help materials (Stead et al.)

  21. Wrapping it up 1 1 mark = 25 words Know what 25 words looks like Essay possibilities • 8+16 marks • 4 + 8 marks • 4 + 6 • 3 + 6 • 2 + 8 • 2 + 4 • 0 + 8 • 4 + 0 Research methods 2 3