Effort And policy of goverment INDONESIafor reduction BY-CATCH Ir. Endroyono, SE, MM Presented on: Coral Triangle Fishers Forum (CTFF) Sanur Paradise Plaza Hotel – Bali, 15 June 2010 MINISTRY OF MARINE AFFAIRS AND FISHERIES DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CAPTURE FISHERIES DIRECTORATE FISHING VESSELS AND FISHING GEARS 2010
CONTENT BY-CATCH DEFINITIONS BY-CATH ISSUE GOVERNMENT EFFORTS AND POLICIES STRATEGY
1 BY-CATCH DEFINITIONS
BY-CATCH DEFINITIONS : Steve Eayrs All animal not main target catch and other material catch in fishing operation or anything non target of fishermen such as turtle, crabs, sharks, rays, corals, seaweeds and garbage from seabed. Sometime define to incident catch. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 339 “By-catch” Anything that a fisher does not intend to catch, including juveniles of commercially-valuable species and biologically-important species. “Discards”: the part of the by-catch that is returned to the sea, either dead or alive.
Operational Definitions Beberapa Pengertian BY-CATCH : Target Catch The catch of a species or species assemblage which is primarily sought in a fishery, such as shrimp, flounders, cods. By-catch Discarded catch plus incidental catch. Discarded Catch That portion of the catch returned to the sea as a result of economic, legal, or personal considerations. Incidental Catch -- Retained catch of non-targeted species Incidental Catch Rate -- The Proportion of total catch which is incidental catch. Discard Rate -- The proportion of total catch which is discarded. Rates may be computed for individual species or combined groups of species (Units of Measure--UM: kg/mt, numbers/mt, numbers/number, etc). Discard Mortality Rate -- The proportion of the discarded catch that dies as a result of catching or handling processes. Discard Mortality -- Discard mortality rate multiplied by discarded catch. Prohibited species -- Any species which must, by law, be returned to the sea. Unobserved Fishing Mortality -- Mortality imposed on a species by the encounter with fishing gear that does not result in capture. High-Grading -- The discard of a marketable species in order to retain the same species at a larger size and price. The discard of a marketable species in order to retain another species of higher value. The retention of only those species or individuals within a species complex having the greatest market value; less valuable species or individuals are discarded.
Operational Definitions Beberapa Pengertian BY-CATCH : Individuals Discard Quota (IDO) -- A quantity of prohibited species which is initially apportioned amongst individuals or groups of individuals to allow effective harvest of non-prohibited species. The IDQ may or may not be traded/sold within this group or between this group and other groups. Discard Quota -- An amount of a prohibited species allowed to be caught by a particular gear type before constraining a fishery. It may be the sum of all IDQs if such a system were in place. Discard Mortality Quota -- The discard quota multiplied by the discard mortality rate. It should be noted that the definitions adopted for bycatch and discards are consistent with those used by Saila (1983). To the above list the authors have added the following operational definitions for terms used in this paper: Discard ratio -- The ratio of discard to actual retained catch (e.g., discard/retained catch frequency given as a percentage). Unobserved fishery mortality -- Death resulting from fishing that cannot be documented from observations of the on-board catch (e.g., deaths resulting from fish passing through webbing, freeing themselves from hooks, ghost fishing,etc.). Black fish -- Non-reported catch. Grey fish -- Catch which is misreported as to area or species
2 BY-CATCH ISSUE
By-catch International Issue Import Export Demand Human food – populations increasing Aquaculture/livestock feed Reduced use in aquaculture/livestock feeds Better utilization Reduced quantity Incresed price Incresed fishing Reduced trawling effort Increase gear selectivity Responsible fishing methods Source: APFIC Regional workshop on Low value and trash fish” in the Asia-Pacific region, 2005
By-catchIssue InIndonesia • Major by-catch issue in Indonesia is endangerous species Turtle, sharks & rays. • Issue turtle and TED impact for shrimp trawl ban in US market until 2005. • For small fisheries All by-catch utilized & sold. • For industrial scale • by-catch release and discard in the sea • cause of limited space of fish hold. • Difficulty to instal and operate BRDs (TED) in shrimp trawl fisheries.
3 GOVERNMENT EFFORTS AND POLICIES
Target Catch Gov. Policies Catch By-catch
Target Catch Gov. Efforts Catch By-catch
Result from Demonstration Result demonstration TED (Turtle Excluder Device) in Tual used Double Rig Trawl KM. Surya 88 & KM. Surya 8 on 13 June 2004 Using TED reduction target catch Result demonstration JTED (Juvenile and Trash Excluder Devices) in Sibolga used KM. Sinar Cahaya Baru on 4 October 2004 Using JTED release juvenile & small fish
Result from BRDs Development Study Research and Engineering the Appropriate BRD for Eco-friendly Trawl in Indonesia Using KM. Laut Arafura (166 GT, 402 HP) milik PT Sinar Abadi Cemerlang Operation in Arafura Sea (Dolak) on 29 November – 9 December 2007
Top twenty fisheries with the highest recorded discard ratios by weight (discard weight per landed target catch weight). Source: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 339.
Existing Name & Scale of Trawl in Indonesia Source: Symposium on Present Status of Trawl in Indonesia Waters, Jakarta April 2005
Strategy for Implementing Eco-friendly Fishing RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES Sustainable Stock BioDiversity Sustainable Fisheries Fisheries REFUGIA for Fish Life Cycle Marine Protected Area Eco-Friendly Fishing Fishing Gear Impact Decreasing Sea Bed Destruction Decreasing By -catch & Mammals Selected Fishing Gear Baseline Data Existing Fishing Gear Selective & Productive Fishing Gear New Improvement Eco-Friendly Fishing Gear
MGT Scheme Fishing Gear Management & Operation 3 2 1 By Endroyono • Indonesia Regulation related on fisheries: • Fisheries Act No.31/2004 • Ministry Decree about Fishing gear Group & Operation in coastal Line zone • Ministry Decree about Marine Protected Area & Endengerous Species Fishing Zone & Environmental Analysis • Economic Regulation : • License & Gov Income Tax • Vessels Productivity • Small Scale Fisheries • Empowering of fishermen START TAE Management Tatal Allowable Effort MAPPING Fishing Zone Gear Type Selection • Oceanography • Bathymetry • Current • Wave, Salinity & • Temperature • Seas bed pattern • Consider : • Fishing Capacity • Fairness • Small vs Large Scale • Consider : • Allowable Minimum Size Landing at 2nd Maturity • Optimum Growth • Gear Type on specific sea bed Condition • Fish Target • Season & time fishing • Consider : • Physic condition • Biologycondition • Map of Fishing Zone: • Fishing Ground • Nursery Ground • Feeding Groung • Spawning Groung • Marine Protected Area • Coral Reef dll • Biology Sampling • Weight-Length Ratio • 2nd Maturity • Chlorophyll • Endengerous Species • Bio diversity • Number of License • in WPP • Per Gear Type • Max Vessels Tonnage • Total in Fishing Zone • Selected Gear Type • Actif • Pasif • Static • Descriptive Evaluation from Logbook & Statistic • Fishing season • Species dominant • By Catch • Economic species MAP of Fishing Gear Management & Control
Mandatory for using eco-friendly of fishing gear Law No. 45 Year 2009 about Revice Law No. 31 Year 2004 About Fisheries Article 9 (1) Everyone prohibited use and install fishing gear and FAD in fishing vessel that can disturb and destruction sustainable fisheries resources in each WPP (regional fishing zone). Selectivity Fishing Gear Sustainable Stock Recruitment stock (quick recovery /long live cycle) Juvenil 1.Disturb Fishing capacity Over capacity Biodiversity & Endangerous Sp. 2. Destruction Habitat & Environtment Sea Bed Characteristic
Plan of Action for Implementing Eco-friendly Fishing • Continuing collaboration with international institution for implementing eco-friendly fishing REBYC 2. • Set Up MGT Scheme Fishing Gear Management & Control • Conduct biological and habitat studies for developing effective fishing area management; • Consultations with fishermen on mapping (fishing activities, resource distribution and seabed habitats); • Set up appropriate fishing zones, refugias, MPAs; • Conduct studies on selective fishing gears, by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) and alternative gears in collaboration with fishing sector. • Public Awareness for Best Fishing Practises • Demonstration of appropriate selective trawl gears and best practices; • Training on fish handling and on board preservation including processing for value-adding of trawl catches; • Provide evidence on economic benefit of reducing by-catch and discards; • Examine and develop incentives that promote more responsible fishing practices; • Examine market-based measure (eco-labelling, etc) for better fisheries practices; • Analysis of incentives for fishermen to adopt more responsible fishing practices and management; • Stakeholder consultations, training and capacity development on best practices/responsible fisheries for specific area fisheries co-management arrangements. • Review existing legislation and amend where necessary.