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HIV/AIDS AND STI/STD UPDATE. Calvert County Health Department Kristen Craft Adolescent Health Coordinator. A little history…. 1978…Strange sickness among gay men AIDS deaths = 31 1981…Kaposi Sarcoma and Pneumonia; Failing immune systems AIDS deaths = 234

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hiv aids and sti std update

HIV/AIDS AND STI/STD UPDATE

Calvert County Health Department

Kristen Craft

Adolescent Health Coordinator

a little history
A little history…

1978…Strange sickness among gay men

AIDS deaths = 31

1981…Kaposi Sarcoma and Pneumonia; Failing immune systems

AIDS deaths = 234

1982…CDC links new disease to blood; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is named; Opportunistic infections

AIDS deaths = 853

1983…CDC warns blood banks; France finds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

AIDS deaths = 2304

1985…FDA approves HIV antibody test; blood banks start testing blood; Ryan White/Rock Hudson; 1st International AIDS conference

AIDS deaths = 5636

a little history1
A little history…

1986…U.S. Surgeon General Koop reports on AIDS and calls for sex education and use of condoms

Cumulative AIDS deaths = 26,710 with 42,355 known cases

1987…AZT approved; AIDS Memorial Quilt; Condom labels; Violence against AIDS victims; HIV+ immigrants and travelers banned

AIDS deaths = 4135

1988…FDA allows non-approved treatments; CDC mails AIDS info to all homes; Women/African Americans fastest growing in epidemic

AIDS deaths = 4855

1989…First World AIDS Day; cost of drugs reduced

AIDS deaths = 14,544

a little history2
A little history…

1990…Americans with Disabilities Act; Ryan White dies

Cumulative AIDS deaths = 159,818 with 257,607 known cases

1991…HIV 10 million worldwide (1 million in U.S.); Restrictions on HIV+ healthcare workers; Magic Johnson

AIDS deaths = 20,454

1992…Multiple drug trials accelerated; Top killer of men ages 25-44 in U.S.; Political events

AIDS deaths = 23,411

1993…Female condom; Blood bank investigations/prosecutions; Arthur Ashe/Rudolf Nureyev

AIDS deaths = 41,920

a little history3
A little history…

1994…Orasure saliva test kit; leading cause of death for all Americans ages 25-44; Mother/child transmission; Elizabeth Glaser

AIDS deaths = 32,330

1995…Combination drug therapies; Greg Louganis

AIDS deaths = 48371

1996…United Nations HIV/AIDS program; HIV cocktails; vaccine initiative

Cumulative AIDS deaths = 386,046 with 611,325 known cases

Worldwide AIDS deaths = 6,400,000 with 22,000,000 HIV+

1997…Significant drop in AIDS deaths but report shows HIV able to hide in body

AIDS deaths = 21,399

a little history4
A little history…

1998…AIDS increasing in African Americans; Supreme Court rules HIV+ protected by ADA; Vaccine testing

First known AIDS death was African man 1959

First U.S. case was teen prostitute with Kaposi Sarcoma 1969

2000…UN Security Council considers AIDS global security threat

2001…AIDS drugs for developing countries through United Nations

Cumulative AIDS deaths = 479,983 with 819,779 known cases

2005…Rise in HIV+ rates at college campuses; STD rates increasing again (especially HPV, herpes, syphilis, and gonorrhea)

Worldwide 40.3 million living with HIV/AIDS with 4.9 million newly infected

2006…Cumulative AIDS deaths = 559,000 with 1,025,000 AIDS cases

slide7
Now…
  • CDC estimates 40,000 persons become infected with HIV each year in the U.S.
  • 2 people under the age of 25 get infected with HIV every hour, every day!
  • African Americans (12% of U.S. population) account for almost half of HIV/AIDS cases
  • Advances in treatment have slowed the progression of HIV infection to AIDS
  • Increased emphasis on testing
slide8
Now…
  • Greatest increase in HIV/AIDS in China and India
  • African countries still lead the world in the number of AIDS deaths
  • Abstinence vs. Condoms
  • AIDS prevention and treatment reaching billions of dollars for developing countries
hiv infection and spread
HIV Infection and Spread
  • Blood
  • Sexual contact: semen and vaginal fluids (anal, oral, vaginal)
  • Sharing needles (IV drug users)
  • Breast milk
  • Found in tears, saliva, urine but NO transmission
  • Highest risk groups are men who have sex with men (MSM) and IV drug users (IDU)
  • Greatest increase in infection seen in heterosexual women
hiv testing
HIV Testing
  • Tests the level of HIV antibodies in your blood, saliva, or urine (not as accurate)
  • Develop antibodies in 3 to 6 months after exposure
  • 97% of those tested develop antibodies in 3 months
fact or fiction
Fact or Fiction?

You can get HIV from a mosquito bite.

Fiction

HIV is not transmitted by insects.

fact or fiction1
Fact or Fiction?

You can get HIV by having oral sex with

an infected person.

Fact

Any type of sexual activity (where bodily fluids are exchanged) with an infected person is a risk of HIV transmission.

fact or fiction2
Fact or Fiction?

HIV survives well in the environment, so

you can get it from toilet seats and door

knobs.

Fiction

Scientists and medical authorities agree that HIV does not survive well in the environment - so forget about those toilet seats!

fact or fiction3
Fact or Fiction?

You can get AIDS by hugging a person

with HIV who is sweating.

Fiction

Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat has never been shown to result in transmission of HIV.

fact or fiction4
Fact or Fiction?

You can get HIV by kissing someone who

is HIV infected.

Fiction

Casual contact through closed-mouth or "social" kissing is not a risk for transmission of HIV.

fact or fiction5
Fact or Fiction?

Condoms aren't really effective in

preventing HIV transmission.

Fiction

Studies have found that even with repeated sexual contact, 98-100% of those people who used latex condoms correctly and consistently did not become infected.

fact or fiction6
Fact or Fiction?

There is a connection between other

STDs and HIV infection.

Fact

Having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) can increase a person's risk of becoming infected with HIV.

the unknown can be a real killer
The Unknown Can Be a Real Killer

Accounting for:

~25% Unaware of Infection

~54% of New Infections

~75% Aware of Infection

~46% of New Infections

New Sexual Infections Each Year: ~32,000

People Living with HIV/AIDS: 1,039,000-1,185,000

slide19

HIV/AIDS by Transmission Category 33 States, 2001–2004

MSM/IDU 5%

Other 3%

Other 1%

Heterosexual

17%

IDU

21%

MSM

61%

IDU

16%

Heterosexual

76%

Females

(n ≈ 45,000)

Males

(n ≈ 112,000)

hiv prevalence 1999 2002
HIV Prevalence 1999-2002

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

Prevalence of HIV Antibody

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

White

M

White

F

BlackM

Black

F

Hispanic

M

Hispanic

F

White

M

White

F

Black M

Black

F

Hispanic

M

Hispanic

F

Age 18-39 years

Age 40-49 years

maryland
Maryland
  • HIV testing is not reportable (expected to change 2008)
  • HIV testing now routine part of prenatal care
  • Now ranked 3rd among states for AIDS cases
  • Baltimore-Towson area ranked 2nd for AIDS cases among metropolitan areas in U.S. (DC is ranked 1st)
calvert county
Calvert County
  • Currently low number of HIV/AIDS cases reported*
  • Growing concern regarding the increase of STD’s in Southern Maryland counties
  • Testing and treatment of adolescents for STD’s is on the rise
  • STD’s provide an open doorway to HIV/AIDS
  • Several cases of antibiotic resistant strain of Gonorrhea now present in the county
std s in america
STD’s in America
  • The American Social Health Association (ASHA) estimates there are nearly 19 million NEW cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States each year.
  • It is important to consider that some STD’s cannot be cured while others use antibiotics at such a rate that they are becoming drug resistant. Another key point is the lack of symptoms in many infected persons that leads to increased transmission when multiple partners are involved.
std s in america1
STD’s in America

*Number of new cases each year

Viral infections CANNOT be cured. The only protection against a virus is through vaccination. Currently, only two STD’s (Hepatitis B and HPV) have a vaccine available.

std s in america2
STD’s in America

*Number of new cases each year

Bacterial and parasitic infections CAN be treated with medication. Any damage that occurs to the body during the period of infection is permanent. Constant re-infection can occur if both (all) partners are not treated. Drug resistant forms of gonorrhea are becoming a problem.

sources
Sources
  • Maryland AIDS Administration
  • Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene/Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MHDH)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention