Causes of the American Revolution:. The Enlightenment. Very important period because political philosophers began expressing democratic ideas . These ideas would help fuel the coming revolution in the colonies!. Thomas Hobbes:.
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Very important period because political philosophers began expressing democratic ideas. These ideas would help fuel the coming revolution in the colonies!
Believed people were nasty and brutish. Rights must be given up to ruler who can & will keep order in society. The ruler must have absolute power. Do you believe what Hobbes believed?
Believed people were reasonable and they would cooperate with each other. Rulers, therefore, must have the consent of the people to stay in power.The people have a right to rebel because people have natural rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of property. Sound familiar?
Believed the government must be separated into different branches as well as the idea of checks and balances so no one branch of government was too powerful!
Said “I do not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” What was he for?
Believed people were good until society corrupted them. Believed all men were created equal (not thinking in terms of race, but social standing). Wrote: The Social Contract
One of colonial America's most popular preachers, George Whitefield was among the first to perform mass revivals. Sometimes preaching 40 to 50 hours a week, he was instrumental in spreading the evangelical Protestant movement known as the Great Awakening.This movement also allowed colonists to challenge not only the church, but also their leaders!
Gave the colonists lots of economic freedom. Do you think they were happy when the King started to take away some of that freedom?
The War was between the French and Native Americans versus the English and Native Americans. The French relied more heavily on their Indian friends than did the British.
The English, French and Native Americans struggle to control North America (1754 – 1763)
The first battle of the French and Indian occurred when a young commander attacked and killed some French soldiers. The commander and his men quickly built a fort (Necessity). The French surrounded the fort and forced the commander to surrender.Who was this doomed commander?
British forces under the command of Gen. James Wolfe take Quebec on September 13, 1759, effectively ending the French and Indian War.
French turned over all land east of the miss. River and much of modern day Canada to Great Britain
After the War, the proclamation of 1763 prevented colonists from crossing over the Appalachians. The King didn’t want to spend too much money defending the colonists, so he limited their freedom and land opportunities.
1764: Britain requires colonial vessels to fill out papers detailing their cargo and destination. The royal navy patrols the coast to search for smugglers, who were to be tried in special courts without a jury.
To maintain the army and repay war debts, Parliament decides to impose charges on colonial trade. It passes the Sugar Act, imposing duties (taxes) on foreign wines, coffee, textiles, and sugar as well as other commodities.
No taxation without representation!
1765: To increase revenues to pay the cost of militarily defending the colonies, Parliament passes the Stamp Act, which requires a tax stamp on legal documents, almanacs, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards (just about anything made out of paper). The Stamp Act made many Americans realize for the first time that the British government could act contrary to the colonies' interests.The Stamp Act
A secret group led by Samuel Adams that came together to develop protests against the Stamp Act. They created all types of protest to fight British policies.
Colonists burn stamped paper in protest during the Stamp Act riots of 1765. The Stamp Act, which was enacted in 1765, was the first direct tax ever laid on the North American colonists.
1765: Parliament approves the Quartering Act, requiring colonial governments to put up British soldiers in unoccupied buildings and provide them with care (candles, bedding, and beverages). When the New York Assembly resists, the British governor suspends the assembly for six months.
King George IIImakes his administrators impose more duties on the colonists.The Townshend Duties
Stamp Act is repealed in1766. 1767: Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend imposes new duties on imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea to the colonies. The Townshend Acts also expand the customs service. Revenue from the acts was to pay the salaries of colonial governors and judges-preventing colonial legislatures from exercising the power of the purse over these officials.
1770: British soldiers under Captain Thomas Preston fire on a Boston crowd, killing five and wounding six. In a subsequent trial, in which John Adams defended the soldiers, all but two of the soldiers are acquitted of murder.Although the soldiers pretty much had every right to fire on the crowd, the incident was used as an effective piece of Propaganda against the British!
To save the East India tea Co., Parliament imposes this new tax on the colonists. How do you think they liked the new tax?
December 16, 1773. The Boston Tea Party was the most dramatic (and most illegal) in a series of actions organized by the Sons of Liberty to protest the British Tea Act of 1773.
In response to the Boston tea Party, the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts are placed upon Massachusetts. Boston Harbor is closed and the Mass. Legislature is dissolved. The Crown will now run Massachusetts. The British overreacted & this was the straw that really broke the camel’s back.The Intolerable Acts
The First Continental Congress, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774. The First Continental Congress brought the leaders of the American colonies together to organize a unified response to unpopular British actions. Other than boycotting British goods, the first meeting accomplished little.
The Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775. This battle, and another on the same day at Concord, Massachusetts, were the opening engagements of the American Revolution.
While the minutemen lost at Lexington they harrassed the British all the way back to Boston, inflicting a lot of Recoat casualties.
March 23, 1775
Who said these famous words and and where did he say them? W
The Second Continental Congress met in May of 1775. George Washington was made Commander of the Colonial (Continental) Army.
First real major engagement of the Revolutionary War. The British won, but had 1000 casualties while the patriots had less than 500. It proved to the British that the Americans were good fighters, having held their own against one of the best armies in the world.Battle of Bunker HillJune 17, 1775
By 1776, most of the colonist still wanted to remain a part of the British Empire. Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense. Its plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain. It caused many neutrals to become patriots.
Who was its chief author?