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ICT Technology – Issues and Opportunities. Prof. Rahul Tongia School of Computer Science CMU 17-899 Fall 2003. Topics. Trends in Technology Time to update the adage “ Cheaper, Faster, Better – pick any 2 ” ? Internet and Telecommunications Primer How it works (or doesn ’ t) Wireless

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Ict technology issues and opportunities l.jpg

ICT Technology –Issues and Opportunities

Prof. Rahul Tongia

School of Computer Science

CMU

17-899 Fall 2003


Topics l.jpg
Topics

  • Trends in Technology

    • Time to update the adage “Cheaper, Faster, Better – pick any 2”?

  • Internet and Telecommunications

    • Primer

    • How it works (or doesn’t)

  • Wireless

    • 802.11 Introduction only

    • Spectrum and other issues


Ict to black box or not l.jpg
ICT – To Black Box or Not?

  • We can cannot cover everything in this one class (even semester!). . .

  • . . .But the much of the technological issues are not that hard – despite some people wanting to pretend they are.

    • With a little effort, the important details can be extracted


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Requirements for Successful Service

Will it inter-operate?

Can it be built?

Technology

Standards

Market

Regulation

Will it sell?

Is it allowed?


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Industry & Society: Penetration Rates

Radio = 38

TV = 13

Cable = 10

120

Internet = 5

Users (Millions)

90

60

Cable

Radio

Internet

30

TV

0

‘22

‘30

‘38

‘46

‘54

‘62

‘70

‘78

‘86

‘94

‘02

Years to reach 50M users:

Source: Morgan Stanley


The heart of the matter the growth of computers l.jpg

Doubling every 15 months

Tera PC

1638400

819200

409600

204800

100G PC

102400

51200

Doubling every 2 years

25600

10G PC

M

12800

I

6400

P

S

3200

1600

GigaPC

800

From: Raj Reddy- The Global Village

400

200

100

2014

2015

2016

2018

2017

2019

2020

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Year

The Heart of the Matter: The Growth of Computers



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1,000Gb/s

100 Gb/s

10 Gb/s

1 Gb/s

1995

Projection

1990

2000

1980

1987 Projection

1983 Projection

1980 Projection

1978 Projection

Optical Fiber: Promise & Performance

Bell Labs

Gilder’s Law – Optical speeds doubling in ~ 9 months


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Software Challenges in Intelligent Data Processing

D. Patterson & Kimberly Keeton UCB



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What Makes the Internet tick?

  • The Internet runs on 3 things:

    • Boundaries

      • Limits of Responsibilities

      • Inside the core, is like a black box (“The Cloud”)

    • Standards (protocols) for data-centric design

      • Expectations of how things should work together

        • Layering

      • Robustness Principle

        • "Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send.“– Jon Postel

      • Resiliency – distributed architecture

      • Limits Monopolies

      • NO ONE OWNS THE INTERNET

    • Trust

      • Addressing schemes and registration

      • End-to-end design


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What is the Internet?

  • The global (public) network built from hundreds and thousands of internetworking independent networks.

  • No single entity “runs” the Internet

  • Operates on standards

  • Built on a modified hierarchical structure

  • Packet Switching

a.k.a. Backbone Providers

Tier 1

Tier 2

Users

  • There are often more layers

  • There can be interconnections other than at a backbone


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Structures of the Industry

  • Government Dept.

  • Government company (PTT)

    • PTT: Abbreviation for postal, telegraph, and telephone (organization). In countries having nationalized services, the organization, usually a governmental department, which acts as its nation's common carrier.

  • Regulated Monopoly

  • Competition

    • IXC – Inter Exchange Carriers

    • ILECs – Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (Baby Bells)

    • CLECs – Competitive Local Exchange Carriers

      • Overbuilders

      • Unbundled Network Elements (Open Access)


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Call Completion” / Transaction Charges

  • Mail – postage stamp mechanism

  • Telephony – cost sharing mechanisms (vary)

  • Internet?

  • What are the costs?

    • Calling – sharp falls over time

    • Mailing – increasing over time

    • Faxing – not going away anytime soon

    • Email

      • Is it really free?

        • Access

        • Upstream TCO (ignoring SPAM, for now!)

        • Time


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Peering – Internet “Call Completion”

  • Where backbones come together

    • Major design issue (relates to cross-connection)

  • Public Peering – fallout of the public history of the Internet

    • Network Access Points (NAPs)

      • Started with 4, but now there are more

      • Usually done by equals

        • Give as much traffic as receive

  • Private Peering

    • Commercial (private)

  • International peering is more limited (links are much more expensive)


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TCP/IP

  • Suite of protocols for networking

  • Based on logical address for devices

  • Most popular standard worldwide – built into most OS

  • Like most other packet switching, is

    • Connectionless

    • Statistical (non-deterministic)

      • No inherent Quality of Service (QoS)

    • Most of IP routing is unicast

  • Routers pass packets along towards the destination hop-by-hop


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Internet – Good for what it was made for

  • Best-effort data network

    • Scalable

    • Resilient

  • New trend – Everything over IP (XoIP)

    • Voice – Circuit switched

      • Less than half the traffic

        • Growth of ~25% vs ~100% (?) for data

      • But, is most of the revenue for carriers

        • Suppliers’“killer app”

        • For users, email and WWW are the killer apps (legal, anyways)

      • Internet Telephony is not the same as VoIP

    • Latency example

      • Berkeley – CMU IP-based lectures!



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Internet is built on trust:

  • Registration (databases) are believed because people think they are correct

    • Domain Name System

      • Handles names for humans vs. binary for machines

      • Root names are the last .xxx, e.g., .com, .edu, .org, .mil, .ca, .tv

      • Just 13 root servers in the world

        • Many copies made for practical purposes

  • Borders define responsibilities


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Standards and Regulation

  • Many bodies, sometimes with overlap

    • IETF (within IAB) handles the engineering of the network

    • W3C handles web standards such as html, xml, etc.

    • IEEE handles some standards

  • Requests for Comments (RFCs) are how things get standardized

    • Draft is circulated

    • Modified, debated, etc. (many versions often)

    • Becomes a standard by vote.

      • Companies often try and tilt emerging standards


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Registries and Domain Names

  • Numeric address space is coordinated

  • Domain Names initially managed by ISI (Jon Postel)

  • National Science Foundation (NSF) hired contractor to administer

    • Network Solutions, Inc. (NSI) [under InterNIC]

  • NSF stopped paying NSI, allowed NSI to charge for .com, .net, .org

    • $70 for two years

  • NSI becomes enormously profitable

* Based on information from Jon Peha and Gary Kessler


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Domain Names (cont.)

  • NSF responsibilities passed to Commerce Dept.

    • The US government controlled key element of the Internet (!) so

  • NSF establishes ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) in 1998

    • Has many critics

  • Registration became competitive by 1999

    • Registry: manage database, NSI monopoly

    • Registrar: consumer interface, competition

  • IP address space (numeric) is still from regional authorities


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Spectrum

  • Frequency affects

    • Capacity Bandwidth

    • Range

    • Interference and Line of Sight Requirements

    • Protocols and Technology

      ISM Bands are kept free for Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Applications, e.g., 2.4 GHz


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Special Properties of Spectrum

  • Heavily controlled

    • Military uses

    • Licensed use

  • Source of licensing fees

  • Is a public good; everywhere yet not limitless

  • Many forms are appropriate for point to multipoint (including broadcast)

  • Encoding is key – bits per hertz


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Spectrum Issues

  • 802.11 Alphabet Soup

    • a, b, g, i, etc. – Differ in

      • Data Rates

      • Bands

      • Compatibility

      • Distance

  • Is licensed spectrum better (cleaner, scalable, etc.)?

    • 3G licenses have gone for thousands of dollars per potential subscriber

  • Cognitive Radios might be the future


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Hypothetical WiFi Kiosk

  • Access Points are now about $100 (only!)

    • What else does it take?

    • What range does it cover?

      • Number of Users

        • Band overlaps and congestion

      • FCC vs. ETSI regulations on emissions

    • Uplinking

      • IP address space

    • “Now What” Syndrome – need user h/w, s/w, etc.

    • Business Plan ?

      • Capex is less than half of “broadband” costs


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ICT Issues

  • Policy

    • Convergence

    • Open Access

  • Universal Service / Digital Divide

  • Globalization

    • “Winner Takes All”

  • Internet

    • Is it special (Information Service vs. Telecom Service)?

    • Jurisdiction

      • Taxation


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Issues in the Internet

  • Scalability

    • Internet is growing* at 100-300%

    • Running out of IP addresses – esp. LDCs

      • Long term solution: IPv6

        • 128 bit addresses (millions per square meter)

    • Protocols and equipment are straining

  • Security

    • Distributed Denial of Service – example of an attack

    • Viruses

    • Spam

    • Privacy

  • Quality of Service

    • Voice


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