Rome: Republic To Empire 500 BC-14 AD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Rome: Republic To Empire 500 BC-14 AD

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Rome: Republic To Empire 500 BC-14 AD

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  1. Rome’s Rise Origins/Geography Politics Expansion Why/How? War-Lords Military Power Caesar (100-44 BC) Octavian (63 BC-14 AD) Rise “Pax Romana” Conc. Key Terms Roman Constitution Consul Roman Citizenship Julius Caesar Octavian/Augustus Dole Rome: Republic To Empire500 BC-14 AD

  2. Mythology & Founding Rome Romulus & Remus founded Rome. Their father, the god Mars, left them to die but were saved by a she-wolf. Romulus & Remus Story

  3. Ancient Italy • People first lived in area around Rome about 1400 BC • Tiber River was crucial for farming and transportation • Land around Tiber River was fertile; great for growing a variety of crops

  4. Roman Constitution(Three “Branches” To Check The Others) • Senate-about 300 men from “leading” families; controlled finances and foreign policy. Key Concept: Three “Branches” To Check The Others • Why? --- Romans hated kings! • Consuls had supreme military and political power. • Assemblies: included all adult male citizens • Vote on passage of all laws (but usually followed advice of Senate)

  5. Office Of Consul • Most important position in the government • Elected by male citizens • Two were elected to a term of one year each • Consuls introduced legislation & led armies • Consuls could block or veto each others actions • The Senate could name one consul “dictator” for six months in times of crisis Statue of Roman Consul

  6. Rome’s Rise(By 265 BC Italy Was United With Rome As Its Capital)

  7. Roman Conquest • Romans built roads which bound the empire together • The Romans had the best trained and equipped forces that were large in number (ages 16-60) • Local rule and Citizenship was granted to many they conquered • CRUSHEDany rebellion quickly & without mercy

  8. Roman Army Army’s Organization • Divided into Legions (5,500-6,000 troops) • Subdivided into Centuries with different specialties • Centuries were headed by…. Centurions Cavalry

  9. Helmut & Gladius Gladius = Most important weapon Initially they were leather, then bronze

  10. Roman Soldiers • VERY highly trained & disciplined • Cowardice = Unforgivable sin • Largely ate a vegetarian diet • Food = type of porridge • Soldiers received little or no pay • Victory in battle enabled them to divide “loot” Wearing armor Wearing helmet & shield

  11. Roman Citizenship • Included: All over 15 whose parents were citizens or individuals granted citizenship. • Rights: Immunity from torture; right to appeal & suffrage (vote—for males). • Responsibilities: Military Service (males 16-60); can’t hold office unless 10 year military veteran.

  12. Roman “Civilization”(City Walls & Roads) Residential FORUM Businesses

  13. Romans & Construction • Romans built triumphal arches (and other monuments) to commemorate military victories.

  14. Arch Of Titus, Rome1st Century AD Celebrates “sack” of Jerusalem in 70 AD

  15. Arch Of Constantine, Rome4th Century AD

  16. War-Lords & Military Power • Military leaders eventually had a tremendous amount of political power • Successful generals brought wealth to the state • Military leaders = Hero worship • Loyalty oaths taken for generals; not country (Rome) • Republican form of government began to break down

  17. Gaius Julius Caesar • From a wealthy family • Commissioner of public works • 59 BC elected consul • Very successful general • Conquered Gaul (modern day France) • Civil war in Rome (49-45 BC) among different generals • Caesar won the civil war and was named dictator (100-44 BC)

  18. Gaius Julius Caesar • Caesar’s actions led to an end of the Roman Republic • Rome Constitution was abolished; no more checks & balances Bust: Julius Caesar Julius Caesar: Historical Background

  19. Caesar’s Impact Today • Updated the calendar (365 days) • Month of his birth is July • Caesarian Section…?

  20. Octavian/Augustus(31 BC-14 AD) • Following Caesar’s death more civil war raged among different war-lords • Octavian was Caesar’s grand nephew • Ushered in the “Pax Romana” = Tremendous Prosperity

  21. Decentralized government by allowing more local control Transformed city life by establishing police & fire departments; improved sewers & access to water Established the dole Octavian/Augustus’sPax Romana • Concern: breakdown in “traditional Roman values” • Instituted religious and social reforms • Laws curbed adultery and pre-marital sex & rewarded large families

  22. The Dole • City of Rome couldn’t produce enough food to feed all the people living there • The Government provided free grains which was baked for bread

  23. Conclusion • Rome began as a Republic: Checks & Balances—limited government • Republic successfully spread • War-lords sought individual power • Caesar & Augustus ended Republic & brought Empire • Possible essay question (two parts): • How & why did it spread? • What was most important trait which influenced Western Civilizations?

  24. Rome’s Rise Origins/Geography Politics Expansion Why/How? War-Lords Military Power Caesar (100-44 BC) Octavian (63 BC-14 AD) Rise “Pax Romana” Conc. Key Terms Roman Constitution Consul Roman Citizenship Julius Caesar Octavian/Augustus Dole Rome: Republic To Empire500 BC-14 AD