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Federalism, Decentralisation and Conflict M anagement in M ulticultural S ocieties. Public Conference from Thomas Fleiner Budapest – January 2008. Main Questions:. Holding or bringing multicultural Societies together we have to ask:. How should they be governed?.
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Federalism, Decentralisation and Conflict Management in Multicultural Societies Public Conference from Thomas Fleiner Budapest – January 2008
Main Questions: Holding or bringing multicultural Societies together we have to ask: How should they be governed? Who should govern whom? And even more explosiv: Who should decide who should govern?
The Challenge of the Nation State Multicul- turality Challenges of the Na- tion-State Nation- state Diversi- tiy con- flicts Fragmen- tation Glocali- sation
The issues: Why is multiculturalism a problem? Do federalism and decentralization help to bring or to hold multicultural societies together?
Is a fragmented civil society as nation builder of a multicultural state conceivable and realistic? Based on what concepts does the international community intervene and/or manage conflicts of multicutlural societies?
State of Modernity: all human individuals are equal as being Nation-State facing Multiculturality Egocentric Hobbes What Universal values, but they do not take culture as legtimacy fundament for politcal identity serious Bearers of unalienable rights Locke What is the main problem? Rational Citoyens Rousseau Exploiters or exploited Marx for all? is good Capable of rea- son and judge- ment Kant Cost-benefit driven Homo oeconomicus
Nation - State Integrating in- to one cultu- re of identity Ignoring Culture Denying Culture Conflict with ethnic minorities
Multiculturality: Diversity Conflicts Controversyaboutthe roots and the potentials of the different conflicts: have economic roots have historical roots Symptoms or causes? are stired up by neighbours Induced by ethnicity are generated by fundamentalism are promoted by warlords Illegitimate state State v. minority terror
Reality Modern State Glocalisation Consumers profit from global market „citoyens“ claim universality of human rights human beings seek local security and local identity
Promoting: shared-rule self-rule? Challenges of the Nation-State with regard to fragmen- tation by diversity Reconciling: conflict ma- nagement power- sharing? What is Legitimacy of multicultural nations ta- kes cultures seriousely but is focussing on particular rather than universal values To get legi- timacy from diversi- ties by good for communities? Tolerating: minority protection; affirmative action? us and for our Equalising: collective rights?
I. To bring or to hold together by state-making or by state-reconstructing
Bring together through constitution making by democratic procedure: Who is the „Pouvoir Constituant“?
Bring together by Constitution making Negotiation
Hold together through reconstructing the federal balance: Creating a new canton by secession
Creating a new Canton Jura out of secession and self-de- termina- tion Jura CH Berne
Along language lines? French German
Or along religious lines? Catholic Protestant
Hold together through reconstructing the federal balance: Nation – building:
II. Hold or bring together by decentralization
To bring together by improving local democracy The challenge of elitism
To bring together by improving local democracy Transparancy and accountability
To hold together by improving local governance Responsiveness
To hold toge- ther by improving local governance Human Rights
III. To hold or bring fragmented civil society(ies) together
To bring civil so- cieties together with rights Right of Self-determination
To bring together with rights Collective rights
Civil societies facing diversities
How can civil societi(es) hold together when they face pluralism of languages
How can civil societ(ies) hold to- gether when they face religious diversities
IV. To bring or hold together by the international community
To bring together Role and legitimacy of international action
To hold togethter Forms of international involvement: Governance
State- making Constitution making Bring together Negotiation State Unity Recon- structing Soft secession Hold together Nation-Building Local de- mocracy Elitism Bring together State Structure Decentra lisation Transparency Local Go- vernance Responsiveness Bring and hold multiculurality together Hold together Human Rights Self-Determination Rights Bring together Civil So- ciety Collective Rights Language Diversi- ties Hold together Religion Interna- tional C. Bring together Intervention Hold together Int. governance