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  1. Introduction to writing scientific papers Gaby van Dijk

  2. Topics • Why? • Who? • What? • How?

  3. Why?

  4. Scientists… …share their research and results with others. • Meetings with collegues. • Presentations and posters on conferences. • Lectures to students. • Papers • Popular papers. • Scientific papers.

  5. Scientists… …share their research and results with others. • Meetings with collegues. • Presentations and posters on conferences. • Lectures to students. • Papers • Popular papers. • Scientific papers.

  6. So why do we write scientific papers? What is our goal? To share research and results.

  7. And… …the number of papers you publish and their importance are often viewed as a reflection of your scientific achievements. Writing high-quality scientific papers takes time, but it is time well invested.

  8. Who?

  9. Who?

  10. For whom do you write a scientific paper? • Other researchers • Same field of expertise. • Other field of expertise. • Students. • Experts.

  11. What?

  12. Scientific paper • Paper in scientific journal. • Peer reviewed. • High standards of quality • Methodology. • Writing.

  13. Scientific paper • Paper in scientific journal. • Systematic review or meta-analysis. • Original article (based on original analysis).

  14. Scientific paper • Paper in scientific journal. • Systematic review or meta-analysis. • Original article (based on original analysis).

  15. How?

  16. How? • First criterium for writing a high-quality paper is high-quality research. • Data. • Analyses.

  17. If you are not an English native-speaker, proofreading by a native-speaker might be helpful. • ErasmusAGE has a native-speaker to edit and proof all papers: Jenna Troup.

  18. Message • Make sure you know what you want to tell your reader. • Think about that before you start writing. • What is your main message?

  19. Learn from others • Read other already published peer-reviewed papers.

  20. Building stones • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion • References

  21. Title (1) • Predicts the content. • Catches the readers interest. • Reflects the tone of the paper. • Contains keywords that will make it easy to retrieve or find by computer search.

  22. Title (2)

  23. Introduction • Contains your motivation for the research you performed.

  24. Introduction

  25. Introduction • From general to specific information.

  26. Introduction • Limit the introduction to studies that relate directly to your study. • Cite previous studies / use references.

  27. Citation • Use references as evidence for the statements you make. • Readers can find the full text elsewhere. • Different ways of citation • Davis (2010) found… • …has been observed (Davis, 2010). • …patterns at least once per week (8). • 1 or 2 authors are cited using their last names. • >2 authors are cited using last name st author followed by et al.

  28. Citation …has been observed (Davis, 2010). • 1 or 2 authors are cited using their last names. • >2 authors are cited using last name 1st author followed by et al.

  29. Citation …to be associated (Davis 2010, Brown et al. 2011, McKerranet al. 2007). • It is acceptable to cite more than one source for a particular statement. • More validity • Suggests that your research was thorough. • References are ordered by publication date, so that the earliest citation comes first.

  30. References • Give full citation of all cited papers in your reference list. • Use endnote or reference manager to manage your references and createbibliography and list. • Vermeulen A. Androgen secretion after age 50 in both sexes. HormRes. 1983;18:37-42.

  31. Introduction • The last paragraph of the introduction contains objectives and research questions. • Also hypotheses can be stated. • What results do you expect?

  32. Keep the introduction as brief as possible.

  33. Methods • Provides all the methodological details necessary for another scientist to duplicate your work. • Description of what you did.

  34. Methods • Design. • Population. • Measurementand variables. • Statistical analysis.

  35. Design • For ErasmusAGE studies refer to GenerationR or the Rotterdam Study and give brief description. • Mention approval by the Medical Ethical Committee and informed consent.

  36. Population • Enrolment • In- and exclusion criteria • N • Give information about inclusion and loss to follow-up. • Test whether enrolment or loss is selective.

  37. Measurement and variables • Variables. • Outcome measures versus independent measures. • How were they measured? • Questionnaires, tests? • References.

  38. Statistical analysis • Provide a brief description of the statistical tests you used.

  39. Results • Present your results. • No interpretation. >>Discussion • Do not present raw data. • Do not include same data in table and figure.

  40. Results • Use text to state the results, then refer to a table or figure where they can see the data for themselves. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased soy bean total biomass (p=0.05) regardless of the presence or absence of Rhizobium (Table 1).

  41. Results • If your table includes the results of a statistical analysis, be sure to provide the information necessary for the reader to properly evaluate the analysis • probability levels, degrees of freedom, sample size, etcetera.

  42. Results

  43. Discussion • Explain what the results mean. • If necessary explain why results differ from what other studies have found.

  44. Discussion • Interpret your results in light of other published results. • Use studies from introduction and new studies.

  45. Discussion • Relate to the objectives and questions you raised in the introduction. • Make statements that synthesize all the evidence (including previous work and the current work).

  46. Abstract • Brief summary of the paper. • Contains information about • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion.