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Biosecurity on the Horse Farm

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  1. Biosecurity on the Horse Farm ANSC 420 – Critical Thinking in Animal Science March 24, 2010 Erin D. Pittman, MS, PAS

  2. Oversight?

  3. Why bother?

  4. How do we control disease? • Vaccinations • Farm Management

  5. How it Works • Infection Control Plan • Avoid or minimize exposure • Optimize resistance • Vaccination • Optimize overall health care • Areas to consider • Nutrition and training/exercise schedule • Ventilation and airflow in stabling area • Insect control • Other • Example: “normal” gastrointestinal flora

  6. Horse Lifestyles – Pasture Potatoes!

  7. Breeding

  8. Breeding

  9. Showing, trail-riding and lessons

  10. Transport

  11. Risk of Disease • Varies by type of horse population! • Some horses predisposed to disease if exposed: • Foals, old horses • Problems with digestive function • Drug treatments • Situations can increase risk of exposure • Commingling with other horses • Exposure to insects

  12. Before we talk “control…” • Do you recognize a sick vs. a healthy horse?

  13. Vital Signs – Adult Horses

  14. Controlling Infectious Diseases • Infection Control Plan • Avoid or minimize exposure • Optimize resistance • Vaccination • Optimize overall health care • Other

  15. Avoiding/Minimizing Exposure • How are diseases transmitted? • Aerosol • Oral • Direct Contact • Fomites • Vector • Zoonotic • Limiting exposure must address all methods of diseasetransmission!

  16. Examples and Methods of Exposure

  17. Things to Consider – Hygiene and Sanitation Where would you rather your horse be?

  18. Hygiene and Sanitation - Facilities

  19. Hygiene and Sanitation - Personal

  20. Hygiene and Sanitation - Horse

  21. Transmission - Aerosol

  22. Transmission – Oral

  23. Transmission – Direct Contact

  24. Transmission - Fomites

  25. Transmission - Vector

  26. Transmission - Zoonotic

  27. Equine Diseases

  28. Equine Herpes Virus • “Rhino” • 9 documented strains • 5 affect domestic horses • EHV-1 and EHV-4 are most common and pathogenic • Clinical Signs: • Fever! • Malaise • Respiratory • Abortion • Neurologic

  29. Equine Infectious Anemia • “Swam Fever” • Horses = natural host • Clinical Signs: • Severe depression • Weakness • Sudden onset of high fever • Anemia! • No treatment available! • Detection = Coggins Test

  30. Coggins Test

  31. Equine Viral Arteritis • EVA • Clinical Signs: • Respiratory Infection • Abortion • Subfertility (stallions) • Limb and Scrotal Edema • Skin reaction

  32. Influenza • Clinical Signs: • Harsh, dry cough • Loss of appetite • Depression • Watery nasal discharge • Can lead to pneumonia

  33. Eastern, Western, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyeltis • ZOONOTIC DISEASES! • High fatality rates • Eastern > Venezuelan > Western • Neurological Signs

  34. Vesicular Stomatitis • Can be transmitted between cattle/pigs and horses • Clinical Signs: • Ulceration of mucosa and coronary band • Crusting lesions of sheath, abdomen • Reportable Disease

  35. Rabies • ZOONOTIC DISEASE • Raccoon strain most common here • Neurological symptoms • Behavioral changes are most common • Time to clinical signs varies • No treatment

  36. Streptococcus Equi • “Strangles” • Clinical Signs: • High Fever • Nasal Discharge • Abscessed Lymph nodes • “Silent Carrier” status • High morbidity, low mortality

  37. Salmonellosis • ZOONOTIC DISEASE! • Clinical Signs: • Colitis • Diarrhea • Highly contagious bacterial infection

  38. Contagious Equine Metritis • Clinical Signs: • Uterine infection • Failure to conceive • Strict importation controls

  39. RhodococcusEqui • Leading cause of foal pneumonia • Foals under 6 months of age most susceptible • High (28%) mortality rate

  40. Vaccinations • Purpose  Acquired Immunity to disease • Initial vaccination • Boosters for unvaccinated animals – 3-6 weeks apart (up to 3, depending on vaccine) • Annual or semi-annual boosters • Routes of Administration • Consult with vet • Different vaccines for different “types” of horses! • Broodmares vs. performance vs. “home-bound”

  41. Routes of Administration Intramuscular (IM) Intranasal (IN)

  42. What are your options? • Establish a Biosecurity Plan • Not as easy as vaccination • Risk aversion of the operation or horse owner? • All will come at some cost!

  43. Communication with staff, owners and visitors! • Make sure they know the rules! • Language barriers? • Signage

  44. Visitors and employees? • Ask! Especially if there is a current disease outbreak in the area • Use good hygiene methods • Have a plan in case of outbreak

  45. Separate Farm and Personal Vehicles

  46. Traffic patterns • People, animals, vehicles • Farm personnel • Veterinarians • Farriers • Visitors • Horse owners (boarders) • Wheel barrows, trucks, trailers, tractors, 4-wheelers, etc.

  47. Facility Design • Think about infection control before you build • Alleyways • High traffic areas • Treatment areas (stocks, wash stall, etc.) • Ease of cleaning • Can it be isolated?

  48. Optimize Health Plans for All HorsesTransport and Housing

  49. Post Contact Information

  50. Insect Control