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Enzyme Reactions

Enzyme Reactions

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Enzyme Reactions

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  1. Enzyme Reactions

  2. Enzyme Characteristics • Most often are proteins • Biological catalysts – speeds up chemical reactions • Reusable – Used in multiple reactions • Summer t-shirt • Specific – One type of enzyme for one type of reaction

  3. Enzyme substrate reactions Substrate: Substance that the enzyme is working on Active Site: Location where enzyme attaches to the substrate

  4. Enzyme Example: Salivase • Found in saliva • Begins the digestive process of carbohydrates in the mouth • Makes it easier for carbohydrates to be digested • Process would NOT start and probably would not finish if salivase was absent = Too much energy would be needed!!!

  5. How Enzymes Work Plot of the Story: You need a lot of energy to begin a chemical reaction Energy Activation Energy Reaction 

  6. How Enzymes Work Enzymes reduce the amount of activation energy needed to start a reaction Energy Reaction 

  7. How Enzymes Work Less energy is used to conduct the reaction so more reactions may occur thanks to an enzyme Energy Our Hero! Reaction 

  8. Another Enzyme Example • The Dilemma: How do we move these cinder blocks from my room to Mr. Hobb’s room? • Possible Solutions???

  9. Enzyme Example: Take 2

  10. Typical Ways Enzymes Work Enzymes may hold two molecules together in a specific way so that they can react  Example: Dehydration synthesis

  11. Typical Ways Enzymes Work • Enzymes may twist molecules into more reactive forms

  12. Typical Ways Enzymes Work Enzymes can break apart macromolecules into monomers Ex. Hydrolysis

  13. Factors that limit enzyme-substrate reactions • Amount of Substrate • When all substrate is used up, the reaction stops • Temperature • Most enzymes in our body function best at 37C • Hotter temperatures may destroy the enzymes

  14. Another Enzyme Example: The Pancreas • Function: Secrete enzymes to break down macromolecules during digestion • Importance: Without these enzymes we would not be able to break down food sufficiently to monomeric units

  15. Pancreatic Enzymes: 4 Types • Proteasis – Proteins • Lipases – Lipids • Carbohydrases – Carbohydrates • Nucleasis – Nucleic Acids

  16. Jell-O • Jell-O contains a protein called GELATIN which causes Jell-O to gel Without Gelatin, Jell-O would fail to gel and you would have liquid Jell-O

  17. Jell-O Continued • Certain Fruits contain enzymes known as proteases that destroy gelatin Protease Liquid Jell-O

  18. Jell-O Continued • Certain dish and laundry soaps have incorporated these fruit derived enzymes in efforts to remove stains from dishes and clothing

  19. Jell-O • In today’s lab we are going to investigate which fruits contain these enzymes • You will be working by yourself on this one • You will need to include the following sections in your report • Introduction • Methods • Results: A table indicating whether or not a fruit contains enzymes • Conclusion

  20. The Fruits of Interest • Apple • Banana • Pineapple • Kiwi • Orange • Lime