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Letters and Sounds. Information for Parents November 2011 Welcome . Phonics at a glance. Phonics is…. Skills of segmentation and blending. Knowledge of the alphabetic code. Phonics Consists of:. Identifying sounds in spoken words Recognising the common spellings of each phoneme.

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letters and sounds

Letters and Sounds

Information for Parents

November 2011

Welcome

phonics at a glance
Phonics at a glance

Phonics is…

Skills of segmentation and blending

Knowledge of the alphabetic code.

phonics consists of
Phonics Consists of:
  • Identifying sounds in spoken words
  • Recognising the common spellings of each phoneme.
  • Blending phonemes into words for reading.
  • Segmenting words into phonemes for spelling.
some definitions
Some Definitions

A Phoneme

This is the smallest unit of sound in a word.

How many phonemes can you hear in

cat?

slide5
A grapheme

These are the letters that represent the phoneme.

Children need to practise recognising the grapheme and saying the phoneme that it represents.

The grapheme could be 1 letter, 2 letters or more! We refer to these as sound buttons.

t ai igh

slide6

A phoneme you hear

  • A grapheme you see

A word always has the same number of phonemes and graphemes!

this is where it gets tricky
This is where it gets tricky!
  • Phonemes are represented by graphemes.
  • A grapheme can consist of 1, 2 or more letters.
  • A phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way ( cat, kennel, choir)
  • The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme ( me, met)
slide9

BLENDING

  • Recognising the letter sounds in a written word, for example

c-u-p

and merging or ‘blending’ them in the order in which they are written to pronounce the word ‘cup’

slide10

SEGMENTING

  • ‘Chopping Up’ the word to spell it out
  • The opposite of blending
  • Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m , s-t-or-k) and writing down letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word him and stork
segment and blend these words
Segment and Blend these words…
  • drep
  • blom
  • gris

Nonsense games like this help to build up skills – and are fun!

once children are good with single phonemes
Once children are good with single phonemes…
  • DIGRAPHS – 2 letters that make 1 sound

ll ss zz oa ai

  • TRIGRAPHS – 3 letters that make 1 sound

igh dge

segmenting activity
Segmenting Activity
  • Use your ‘robot arms’ to say how many phonemes in each word.
  • shelf
  • dress
  • sprint
  • string
did you get it right
Did you get it right?
  • shelf = sh – e – l – f = 4 phonemes
  • dress = d - r - e – ss = 4 phonemes
  • sprint = s – p – r – i – n – t = 6 phonemes
  • string = s – t – r – i – ng = 5 phonemes
tricky words
TRICKY WORDS
  • Words that are not phonically decodeable
  • e.g. was, the, I
  • Some are ‘tricky’ to start with but will become decodeable once we have learned the harder phonemes
  • e.g. out, there,
phase 1 pre school
Phase 1 (pre school)

* Showing an awareness of rhyme and alliteration.

* Distinguishing between sounds in the environment and phonemes.

* Exploring and experimenting with sounds and words.

* Discriminating speech sounds in words.

* Beginning to orally blend and segment phonemes.

phase 2
Phase 2
  • Using common consonants and vowels.
  • Blending for reading and segmenting for spelling simple cvc words.
  • Understanding that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemes.

Set 1 - s, a, t, p,

Set 2 - l, n, m, d,

Set 3 - g, o, c, k,

Set 4 - ck, e, u, r,

Set 5 - h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss

phase 3
Phase 3
  • Knowing one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes.
  • There are 43 phonemes in the English language!
  • Reading and spelling a wide range of cvc words.
  • Using all letters and less frequent consonant digraphs and some long vowel phonemes.
phase 319
Phase 3

Letter Progression:

Set 6 - j, v, w, x

Set 7 - y, z, zz, qu

Graphemes:

ear, air, ure, er, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ai, ee, igh, oa, oo

Consonant digraphs:

ch, sh, th, ng.

phase 4
Phase 4
  • This is a consolidation unit. There are no new graphemes to learn. Reading and spelling of tricky words continues.
  • Segmenting adjacent consonants in words and applying this in spelling.
  • Blending adjacent consonants in words and applying this skill when reading unfamiliar texts.
phase 5
Phase 5
  • Reading phonetically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words.
  • Using alternative ways of pronouncing and spelling the graphemes corresponding to the long vowel phonemes.
  • Spelling complex words using phonetically plausible attempts.
slide22

Graphemes:

ay, ou, ie, ea, oy, ir, ue, aw, wh, ph, ew, oe, au, a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e.

Alternative graphemes for:

i, o, c, g, u, ow, ie, ea, er, a, y, ch, ou

phase 6
Phase 6
  • Recognising phonic irregularities and becoming more secure with less common grapheme – phoneme correspondences.
  • Applying phonic skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex words.
  • Introducing and teaching the past tense
  • Investigating and learning how to add suffixes
  • Teaching spelling long words
  • Finding and learning the difficult bits in words
slide24

In addition to this, each the week the children learn ‘tricky’ spelling words (those that are not spelt phonetically) and key sight vocabulary.

The key sight word list has 100 words to learn in Reception and Year 1. While in year 2 an additional 200 words are added.

spelling groups
Spelling Groups

Now these pupils have a sound understanding in phonics these groups will focus on learning the spelling rules.  

  • To secure the reading and spelling of words containing different spelling for phonemes.
  • To learn how to add common prefixes to words and understand how it changes the meaning of the word.
  • To split compound words into their component parts and use this knowledge to support spelling.
  • Next Focus
  • To consolidate knowledge of adding suffixes and to investigate conventions related to the spelling pattern –le.
  • To spell regular verb endings and to learn irregular tense changes (e.g. go/went)  
  • To know what happens to nouns when s is added.
  • To understand how words change when the suffixes are added.
  • To embed the correct use and spelling of pronouns.
  • To develop knowledge of prefixes to generate new words from root words.
  • Next focus
  • To distinguish between the spelling and meaning of homophones.
  • To investigate, collect and classify spelling patterns related to the formation of plurals.
  • To investigate and learn to spell words with common letter strings.
  • To understand how suffixes change the functions of words.
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words.
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words.
  • To revise and investigate links between the meaning and spelling when using affixes.
next focus
Next Focus
  • To consolidate knowledge of adding suffixes and to investigate conventions related to the spelling pattern –le. 
  • To spell regular verb endings and to learn irregular tense changes (e.g. go/went)  
  • To know what happens to nouns when s is added. 
  • To understand how words change when the suffixes are added. 
  • To embed the correct use and spelling of pronouns.
  • To develop knowledge of prefixes to generate new words from root words. 
  • Next focus 
  • To distinguish between the spelling and meaning of homophones. 
  • To investigate, collect and classify spelling patterns related to the formation of plurals.
  • To investigate and learn to spell words with common letter strings.
  • To understand how suffixes change the functions of words.
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words. 
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words.
  • To revise and investigate links between the meaning and spelling when using affixes.
next focus27
Next Focus

To distinguish between the spelling and meaning of homophones. 

  • To investigate, collect and classify spelling patterns related to the formation of plurals.
  • To investigate and learn to spell words with common letter strings.
  • To understand how suffixes change the functions of words.
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words. 
  • To understand the use of the apostrophe in contracted forms of words.
  • To revise and investigate links between the meaning and spelling when using affixes.
grapheme key vocabulary
Grapheme Key Vocabulary
  • Digraph
  • Trigraph
  • Split diagraph

2 letters making one sound ( ai, ee, oo)

3 letters making one sound ( igh , dge )

Where the two letters are not adjacent

( a-e, e-e )

slide31

Where Can I Go To Find Out More?

www.nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/84969

Here are the phases.

useful web sites
Useful web sites
  • www.coxhoe.durham.sch.uk/Curriculum/Literacy.htm
  • www.bbc.co.uk/schools/websites/4_11/site/literacy.shtml
  • www.ictgames.com/literacy.html