Grade 11 Objective 1. 1 The safest way to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid is to add — A a series of small volumes of water to the acid while stirring B the acid to water slowly while stirring constantly C the acid to a small volume of water and then add more water
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A a series of small volumes of water to the acid while stirring
B the acid to water slowly while stirring constantly
C the acid to a small volume of water and then add more water
D dilute sulfuric acid to a small volume of the concentrated acid
2 A science class is conducting an experiment that produces noxious fumes. Because of inadequate ventilation, some students begin to feel nauseated and dizzy. The first response should be to —
A neutralize the acid that is reacting to produce the noxious fumes
B carry the reactants outside, away from other students
C leave the room and go to an area with fresh air
D spray the reaction with a fire extinguisher
3 All of these procedures must be followed when using the setup shown above except —
A putting on safety goggles
B handling the beaker with tongs
C securing loose clothing
D wearing rubber gloves
A laboratory fume hood
B beaker with a watch glass on top
C well-ventilated area of the lab
D warm, airtight drying oven
5 Classification symbols for certain fire extinguishers are shown below. Which class of fire extinguisher should be used when a hot
plate overheats and catches on fire?
6 The label shown above contains information about some harmful effects of acetone. A group of students plans to use acetone to rinse out a glass container. A second group of students is working at the same lab table. Which of the following lab procedures should the second group of students avoid?A Heating water with an open flameB Pouring hydrochloric acid into a beakerC Filtering precipitates from a liquid solutionD Collecting oxygen from plants in a test tube
7 The anatomy of grasshoppers is being studied in a dissection lab. Working in groups of three, students make observations using a hand lens, forceps, and a scalpel. Two of the students in a group have finished their observations. These two students may do all of the following except —
A remove their goggles
B review their notes
C wash their hands
D assist their lab partner
A label the equipment used
B keep hands away from face and mouth
C sterilize the dissecting needle before use
D disinfect the fur and feathers removed from the pellet
10 Science can be divided into three broad groups: life science, physical science, and Earth science. Which of these topics would
most likely involve a knowledge of concepts from all three branches of science?
A Patterns of earthquakes
B Aging of stars
C Weathering of rocks
D Structure of water molecules
11 Which of these tables best represents an experimental design used to test whether cortisone relieves inflammation?
A how much mechanical energy the battery produces
B the pH of water during electrolysis
C the pressure created by an electric current
D how much energy is converted to heat
13 The table shows times required for water to evaporate from identical containers. Which of these is the best question to ask before developing a reasonable hypothesis to explain the data?
F Why does a lower temperature slow the rate of evaporation?
G What is the boiling point of the water after both samples are heated?
H Why does water exist as a solid at −15°C and as a liquid at 25°C?
J How does the rate of evaporation change when a different container is used?
F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis?
G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide?
H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere?
J Have the scientist’s other predictions about Mars been validated?
15 Two science students discovered that the mass of a sample of acetone in an open beaker decreased within a few minutes. One student hypothesized that the acetone reacted with oxygen to form a gaseous compound that escaped. The other student believed that the acetone evaporated into the air. What should the students do to test these hypotheses?
F Combine the hypotheses so they give valid predictions of the acetone’s behavior
G Conduct a study of original papers describing the experiments leading to acetone’s discovery
H Perform an experiment that attempts to identify the gas above the open beaker
J Ask a classmate’s opinion about the chemical and physical properties of acetone
16 Which of the following was probably the hypothesis for this experiment?
F The growth of bread mold increases as temperature increases.
G The type of nutrient causes bread mold to grow faster at higher temperatures.
H The size of the plates determines the temperature of bread mold.
J The temperature of bread mold is determined by the mold’s growth.
17 Which procedure is best to use when determining the density of a rock?
F Place the rock in a water-filled beaker and find the height at which the rock floats above the water.
G Use a ruler to measure the rock’s dimensions and then find its mass using an analytical balance.
H Measure the mass of the rock on a balance and then find the volume of water it displaces in a graduated cylinder.
J Place the rock in three liquids with different known densities and observe which liquid the rock floats in.
F What types of plants have increased productivity in different habitats?
G Is there a relationship between productivity and bird diversity in a habitat?
H How does the number of birds in a population affect habitats?
J Do habitats display changes in productivity and bird diversity during different seasons?
19 The diagram shows different setups of an experiment to determine how sharks find their prey. Which experimental setup is the control?
20 A catapult was designed to project a small metal ball at a target. The resulting data are shown in the table. Which of these might explain the difference between the calculated and actual distances?
A The ball landed short of the calculated distance because of an increase in momentum.
B Air resistance caused the ball to land short of the calculated distance.
C Initial mass of the ball changed with each trial.
D The metal ball was too small for accurate measurements to be made.
21 Which is the best question to ask before developing a reasonable hypothesis for the phenomenon shown above?
F Why does water crystallize into a solid below 0°C instead of remaining a liquid?
G How will the freezing time from 20°C to –15°C change if each container is covered?
H Why does boiling the water cause it to freeze more quickly when cooled from 20°C to –15°C?
J What is the precise boiling point of the water in Sample A after it has been heated?
22 The diagram shows an experimental setup. Which of these questions was this experiment designed to answer?
A Does water boil when exposed to air?
B Will fire turn a gas into a liquid?
C Does air expand when heated?
D Will heat turn a gas into a solid?
23 A ruler placed between one student’s fingers and thumb is released without warning. A second student catches the ruler. The distance the ruler falls is recorded. This experiment is most likely designed to determine the —
F effects of stress on the first student’s heart rate
G acceleration of the ruler during its fall
H second student’s reaction time to a stimulus
J force applied on a falling mass
24 Which set of equipment would be best to use to test the effect of temperature on solution acidity?
F A balance and a thermometer
G A pH meter and a barometer
H A balance and litmus paper
J A thermometer and a pH meter
25 Which of these could be used to determine whether a substance is a base?A ThermometerB Litmus paperC BalanceD Bunsen burner
26 A medical researcher hypothesizes that a newly developed medication can reduce high blood pressure. Which of these would most likely be the dependent variable in a study involving this medication?A The number of participants in the studyB The ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medicationsC The blood pressure of the participants in the studyD The number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications
27 The following hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis?A Tracking dust clouds with satellite photosB Determining the effects of iron on limestoneC Calculating erosion rates in African limestone minesD Analyzing the content of comet dust clouds
28 The picture above shows a compound microscope. What part of the microscope should be used to adjust the amount of light illuminating a prepared slide?A EyepieceB Rotating nosepieceC DiaphragmD Coarse-focus knob
29 According to these data, which question was most likely answered by this activity?
A How warm do materials get when placed in an electric circuit?
B Will an electric current change a metal into a nonmetal?
C Which material requires the greatest voltage in an electric circuit?
D Can an electric current be used to distinguish metals from other materials?
30 Only 10% of the electrical energy operating a lightbulb is changed into visible light. Which instrument helps identify the energy change
occurring to most of the remaining 90%?
F Triple-beam balance
H Magnifying glass
125 mL cooking oil
100 mL H2O
10 g NaOH
500 mL beaker
• Measure and add 100 mL of H2O to 125 mL of cooking oil and mix thoroughly.
• Carefully and slowly add 10 g of NaOH while stirring constantly.
• Stir until a thick paste forms.
• Pour the paste into a mold and let it sit for two days.
• Remove the solid bar from the mold.
Keep this soap away from the face and eyes because traces of NaOH may still be present on the soap bar. Use this soap for washing floors and tools only.
31 Which two pieces of equipment should be added to the materials list for this activity?F Graduated cylinder and metric rulerG Metric ruler and stopwatchH Magnifying glass and balanceJ Graduated cylinder and balance
A bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, and water
B water and 2% root hormone
C water only
D bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, water, and 1% root hormone
33 A student is working with four beakers that each contain a clear liquid. Which set of procedures would be best to use to determine whether one of the beakers contains only distilled water?
Determine boiling point
Determine boiling point
34 Similar sprigs of elodea were placed in four test tubes. Each test tube contained water with a different concentration of salt ranging from 0 to 3 percent. The length of each sprig was measured after 10 days. Which of these questions can best be answered with this experimental setup?
F Can the amount of salt in the water help elodea avoid disease? G What happens to salt as elodea uses water?
H Will elodea increase the amount of salt in the water?
J Does the amount of salt in the water affect elodea growth?
35 The picture shows an experiment designed to investigate biochemical activity in a water plant in a dark room. Over time, bubbles can be easily observed and counted as they escape from the funnel. The number of bubbles is an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis. Which of these data tables best reflects the expected results of this experiment?
A B C D
36 Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis for the experiment described above?
A Vegetation that grows near roadways requires more water than vegetation in other areas.
B De-icing solution causes roadways to have more space for vegetation.
C Vegetation near roadways changes the effectiveness of de-icing solution.
D De-icing solution affects some types of vegetation that grow near roadways.
Some species of plants that commonly grow near roadways are used in an experiment. The plant species are divided into control groups and experimental groups. All groups are grown under identical conditions except
that the experimental groups are given daily applications of a de-icing solution that is used on roadways in winter. At the end of one month, the growth of the control and experimental groups is compared.
37 Which of these tools is most useful in identifying the wavelengths of visible light?
F Convex lens
J Concave mirror
38 In an activity, a ball is dropped from a height of 100 cm onto five different materials. The rebound height of each drop is shown in the
graph. Which of the following describes the hypothesis most likely being tested?
A The mass of the ball affects the rebound height.
B The material the ball is made of affects the rebound height.
C The height the ball is dropped from affects the rebound height.
D The surface the ball is dropped onto affects the rebound height.
39 The diagram shows a classroom setup for an experiment. This experiment was probably designed to determine wood lice —
F social behaviors
G activity patterns
J habitat preferences
40 These data were gathered by four groups of students. Each group performed four trials to determine the acceleration rate of a toy car. Which group had the most consistent data?
F Group Q
G Group R
H Group S
J Group T
41 The picture shows the position of a ball every 0.25 second on a photogram. Using a ruler, determine the velocity of the ball.
F 3.5 cm/s
G 10.5 cm/s
H 14.0 cm/s
J 28.0 cm/s
42 Four lab groups measured the volume of acid required to neutralize a standard solution of sodium hydroxide base. Which of the groups measured the volume with the highest precision?
43 The table shows four mass readings of one object as measured by four different balances. Which balance produced the most- consistent measurements?
44 The illustration shows volume levels of a liquid in a graduated cylinder before and after a sample was removed. According to this information, what was the volume of the sample to the nearest milliliter? Record and bubble in your answer on the answer document.
45 Which of these will give the most precise measure of a 10-milliliter volume?
A 19.4 mL
B 19.6 mL
C 20.4 mL
D 20.6 mL
47 Which of these probably served as the most useful data after Pasteur injected a group of chickens with bacteria from the older culture?A The health and behavior of the injected chickensB The total number of cholera cases observedC The changes in the shape and color of the bacterial coloniesD The recovery rate of chickens previously infected with cholera
Louis Pasteur’s ExperimentLike many other scientific breakthroughs, the discovery of immunization happened by accident. In 1880 Louis Pasteur was trying to protect chickens from cholera. To study the disease, Pasteur and his assistants gave injections of cholera bacteria to several groups of chickens. The chickens usually died from cholera after being injected with the bacteria. However, one group of chickens survived. Pasteur noticed that these chickens had been injected with a six-week-old batch of cholera bacteria. Pasteur’s assistants prepared new colonies of cholera bacteria and injected these chickens a second time. They also injected a group of chickens that had not been previously injected. Pasteur was surprised that the chickens that had been injected previously with the old bacteria remained healthy, while all the chickens in the second group became sick and died. This is how Pasteur came to discover that exposure to weakened pathogens can provide immunity from disease. The idea was later used to protect animals from other serious diseases. Today immunizations help protect people from many illnesses.
48 Three liquids were poured into a beaker and formed three layers. Which conclusion is best supported by the information above?A The mass of Liquid 2 is greater than the mass of Liquid 3.B The volume of Liquid 1 is less than the volume of Liquid 3.C The density of Liquid 3 is greater than the density of Liquid 2.D The buoyancy of Liquid 2 is greater than the buoyancy of Liquid 1.
49 The pictures above show two organisms. Measure their body lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. What is the difference between the body lengths of the grasshopper and cricket?
Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest tenth on the answer document.
40.0 mL of a dilute sodium hydroxide solution?
51 The chart shows the results of a conservation-of-mass experiment. The most accurate trial for this experiment was —
F Trial 1
G Trial 2
H Trial 3
J Trial 4
52 Two students measured the length of the same stick, each using a different 30 cm ruler. One student reported a length of 22 cm, and the other reported a length of 8 cm. The most likely explanation for the difference in the reported values is that one —
A student improperly read the ruler
B ruler was metal and the other ruler was plastic
C student viewed the ruler from a different angle
D ruler was constructed with nonstandard cm marks
53 Which of these is the most appropriate unit of measure for reporting the density of a solid?
54 Which piece of equipment would be used to precisely measure the volume of an acid?
55 The graph shows the increase in
a Stentor population. If this trend
continues, what will be the
approximate size of the Stentor
population after 4 weeks?
A 325 per 100 mL
B 348 per 100 mL
C 401 per 100 mL
D 454 per 100 mL
56 Which graph best shows the comparison of the elements to the total composition of the copper ore?
58 According to the data in the table, about how far can a spring be expected to stretch when a force of 3.92 N is applied?
A 10.5 cm
B 13.6 cm
C 14.0 cm
D 17.3 cm
59 This diagram shows the biochemical pathway that produces arginine in Neurospora, a mold. Neurospora is easily grown on a simple jelly-like medium. Different substances can be added to the
medium. A mutant Neurospora lacking Enzyme Y would have to have which of these added to its medium in order to survive?
A Enzyme X
C Enzyme Z
60 According to this information, what is the best prediction for the boiling point of the seven-carbon alcohol?
A 5.7 years
B 5,700 years
C 23,000 years
D 1,000,000 years
63 While studying the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas, members of a science class conducted an experiment in which they changed the pressure on a balloon and then measured the balloon’s volume. They collected the data above. Which graph correctly represents these data?
A B C D
64 The graph shows the amount of carbon-14 in tissue over time. According to the graph, if a bone contains 1/8 the amount of
carbon-14 that it did originally, its approximate age is —
F 5,700 years
G 11,400 years
H 17,100 years
J 22,800 years
65 This chart shows the results of an experiment performed in the 1920s using a bacterial species that causes pneumonia in humans. The experiment involved several procedures using two different bacterial strains, R and S. What is a possible explanation for the results in Group 2?
A Living S-strain bacteria can transform into a pathogenic form of R-strain bacteria.
B Living R-strain bacteria are controlled by a mouse’s immune system.
C Dead S-strain bacteria can cause disease.
D Dead R-strain bacteria can confer resistance to S-strain bacteria.
66 The diagram above shows the biochemical pathway that produces arginine, an amino acid required by an organism called Neurospora. The table shows the response of a mutant strain of Neurospora to supplements in its food supply. This mutant strain must lack the enzyme that acts on —
F the precursor
67 This graph shows the absorption spectrum for a certain pigment molecule. To a human, this pigment would most likely appear —
68 The table shows the number of bubbles released by an elodea plant per minute at different light intensities. The rate of bubble release is representative of the photosynthetic rate. Which statement is supported by these data?
A The rate of photosynthesis is slowest when elodea produces
7 to 12 bubbles.
B Lower light intensity causes a higher photosynthetic rate.
C The greatest difference in photosynthetic rate is between the
75 W and 100 W light bulbs.
D Light intensity has little effect on the rate of photosynthesis of elodea.
69 The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive system of insects. How can these bacteria be used to control insects in crops?F Apply the bacteria to growing plants.G Expose the bacteria to low levels of light.H Remove plants from areas containing the bacteria.J Treat the bacteria with a solution of the protein crystals.
70 The graph shows how the momentum of a given mass changes during a period of motion. According to the information, what is the momentum in kg m/s at 2.75 seconds? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on the answer document.
71 The graph shows how the voltage needed to maintain a constant current of 1.5 amps through a wire conductor varies with the length of the wire. If the trend continues, what is the most likely voltage needed to maintain a 1.5-amp current through 80 meters of the wire?F 10 voltsG 18 voltsH 250 voltsJ 400 volts
Electron Configuration 72 According to the periodic table and the information above, which element has this electron configuration?F SodiumG NeonH MagnesiumJ Argon
73 The table shows the results of growing a yeast culture in a 5% glucose solution. The number of bubbles produced was used to indicate the extent of respiration by the yeast. If all other factors are held constant, how many bubbles should be produced in Tube 3 after 4 minutes?
74 About how much KNO3 will dissolve in 100 grams of water at 80°C to make a saturated solution?
A 48 grams
B 160 grams
C 170 grams
D 220 grams
75 In 1967, 34 million metric tons of fertilizers were used in the United States. According to the graph, how many more metric tons of fertilizers were used 30 years later?
A 16 million
B 25 million
C 64 million
D 84 million
* Sublimes (changes directly from solid into gas)
76 Which of these statements is best supported by the information in the table?
F Carbon dioxide and oxygen have similar chemical properties.
G The density of the gases increases as their molecular mass increases.
H Chlorine and hydrogen boil at the same temperature.
J The solubility of the gases decreases as their density increases.
77 A researcher determined the percentage of electrical energy transformed into different forms of energy by a toaster. The best way to communicate these results is to display the data using a —
G circle graph
H line graph
J box-whisker graph
78 The table above shows percent differences in cytochrome c in four different animals. According to the table, which two animals are most closely related to each other?
A Horse and dog
B Dog and kangaroo
C Horse and penguin
D Penguin and kangaroo
• Cytochrome c is a protein found in all aerobic organisms.
• The differences in the amino acid sequence of cytochrome c are used to determine how closely species are related.
79 The chart shows the classification of four organisms found in Texas. Which organism is most closely related to Organism X?
A Anolis carolinensis
B Bufo americanus
C Poecile gambeli
D Grus americana
80 If the current trend continues, about how many grams of KBr will dissolve in 100 g of water at 140°C?
A 124 g
B 131 g
C 140 g
D 149 g
A The solution’s freezing point remained constant with each increase in the amount of solute.
B The freezing point of the solution decreased as the amount of dissolved solute increased.
C The rate of freezing increased when more solute was dissolved in the solvent.
D The solution remained a liquid because more solute was added to the solvent.
82 The table shows environmental factors and soybean production for three regions. Which of the following probably accounts for the decrease in soybean yield in Region 1?
F High levels of ozone damaged the soybean plants, decreasing the average yield.
G Low rainfall amounts failed to meet the plants’ moisture needs and inhibited growth.
H Poor mineral levels found in the soil in that region limited the soybean harvest.
J Higher-than-normal rainfall increased pest activity, decreasing the average yield.
83 An environmental-science company measured the ozone pollutant levels at two different locations in a metropolitan area. Which statement is best supported by these data?
A Lower fuel efficiency and northerly winds in the winter increase ozone pollution the most.
B Northwest winds in the spring transport ozone pollution into the metropolitan area.
C High summer temperatures and southerly winds contribute to high levels of ozone.
D Heavy use of automobiles changes ozone levels the most.
workers have the greatest chance
of experiencing significant hearing
loss over time?
F Police traffic officers
G Shoe-factory workers
H Road-construction crews
J Library desk clerks
85 The graph shows the results of a study testing chemical pesticides on a pest species common to cotton plants. Different chemical pesticides were used in five different areas. According to these results, which of the following is the most effective chemical for controlling this pest species?
86 A certain commercial product used for cleaning ovens must be handled with rubber gloves. The product is slippery and turns litmus paper blue. It probably contains —
F an acid
G a base
H a salt
J an isotope
87 The graph shows metabolic rates for two types of fish at different environmental temperatures. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these data?
F Fish metabolism responds to temperature changes.
G Metabolic rates decrease as environmental temperatures increase.
H Fish body temperature results from high metabolism.
J Metabolic rates are independent of environmental temperature.
88 The graph shows the relative basal metabolic rates of a field mouse and an anole (a type of lizard) at different temperatures. According to this information, the field mouse —
A uses the least energy when the environmental temperature
B is able to control its body temperature
C uses less energy at 20°C than the anole does
D is unaffected by environmental temperatures
89 Boiling water can be used to sanitize dishes. The data above show how sanitizing time varies in different locations. Which inference is supported by these data?F The boiling point of water is constant at higher altitudes.G The boiling point of water is affected by elevation.H Water takes longer to boil at Fort Davis than at sea level.J Boiling water changes temperature at a faster rate at Corpus Christi than at higher elevations.
90 What can be concluded from the relationships described above?F Gas molecules travel longer distances at greater speeds when the volume of the gas is decreased.G A gas is more likely to lose kinetic energy when its volume is reduced.H Gas molecules collide less frequently when the volume of the gas is increased.J A gas is more likely to increase in momentum when its volume is increased.
91 Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information above?F Trade winds help maintain some food chains.G Trade winds produce useful minerals in some oceans.H Trade winds can reverse parts of the water cycle.J Trade winds may be able to reduce greenhouse gases.
92 A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of hearing aids. People with different types of hearing loss were included in the study. Which question would help in determining whether the conclusion above is valid?A What was the average age of the people in the study?B What was the most common occupation of people in the study?C How many people were included in the study?D How many people in the study had vision problems?
93 Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information above?
F Antibiotics have intensified the symptoms of M. tuberculosis infections.
G M. tuberculosis is becoming extinct because of antibiotics.
H Antibiotics have caused M. tuberculosis to reproduce at a faster rate.
J M. tuberculosis has developed resistance to antibiotics.
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in humans.
• When treated with antibiotics, most M. tuberculosis bacteria are killed, but some have genes that allow them to survive.
• M. tuberculosis bacteria that survive the antibiotic treatment may reproduce.
94 The picture shows the results of a demonstration using the simple water plant Elodea. When the setup was placed in strong light, a space gradually appeared above the water in the graduated cylinder containing the plant. The gas in the space above the water was mostly —
G carbon dioxide
95 The graph compares absenteeism of elementary school students who wash their hands properly with absenteeism of students who fail to wash their hands properly. Which inference could best be supported by these data?
A Proper hand-washing may increase attendance among elementary school students.
B Older students have developed better hand-washing habits than younger students.
C Some elementary school classes teach correct hand-washing methods to students.
D Improper hand-washing is a common practice among most elementary school students.
96 The pictures show a 10-newton block of wood being used to demonstrate how this instrument measures pressure. According to these data, the pressure of the block is a measure of the block’s —
A weight distributed over an area
B density along each face
C mass per unit of volume
D change in inertia
97 After 15 minutes the food coloring in Beaker A is evenly spread throughout the beaker, while Beaker B contains a thin layer of food coloring only at its bottom. These observations support the theory that convection currents in a fluid form more quickly if the fluid has —
A warmer layers at the bottom
B a covering on its surface
C reduced pressure on the bottom
D contact with a cooler surface
98 A glass is held upside down so that its open end is closed by the water’s surface. Soon air bubbles begin to escape from the glass. The best explanation for this observation is that —
A water condenses on the glass and escapes as a gas
B air in the glass increases the water temperature and causes bubbling
C pressurized water vapor rises rapidly and evaporates
D air trapped in the glass is warmed and expands in volume
99 The diagram represents helium gas expanding to fill a larger container. What is the ratio of the helium gas’s density at the final volume to its density at the initial volume?
100 According to this information, three of these organisms should be placed in the same kingdom. Which organism should be placed in a different kingdom?
101 In the past, people thought that life arose spontaneously out of non-living material. This belief was based partly on the observation
that vegetable broth swarmed with microorganisms after sitting out for a few hours. Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) believed spontaneous generation was impossible. Which statement below would best support Pasteur’s belief?
A Broth that was kept clean of airborne dust particles shows no signs of life after many days.
B A review of other scientists’ work shows that those scientists made many observations.
C If distilled water is substituted for the broth, no microorganisms are revealed after a few hours.
D Philosophical arguments offer no support for spontaneous generation.
102 The smell of an ammonia solution used to clean a floor can quickly be detected throughout a house. Scientists explain this phenomenon by theorizing that gas molecules from the ammonia are in continuous random high-speed motion, drifting rapidly and
permeating the air. Which statement best demonstrates the strength of this theory?
A Scientists have observed tiny smoke particles moved by unseen particles in a rapid, irregular fashion.
B Scientists have unanimously agreed on this theory since Thomas Graham’s experiments in the 1820s.
C The possibility of another theory being formed to explain the phenomenon as well is very remote.
D Reason, as opposed to experimentation, is superior to any explanation found through chemical testing.
103 An advertisement claims that patients can be cured of the common cold in 48 hours by vitamin C tablets with secret mineral
supplements. In a scientific experiment to test these claims, which data can be considered irrelevant?
A The amount of vitamin C in each tablet
B The severity of the patients’ cold symptoms
C The chemical formula for vitamin C
D The amount of time before symptoms improve
104 The table shows the time it took trees of the same type and size to drop all of their leaves after being grown in different atmospheres. For the experiment to be valid, which of these must be a constant for all the trees?F The height of all the trees during the entire experimentG The amount of water available to all trees during the experimentH The mass of fallen leaves collected from each treeJ The rate of photosynthesis in all trees during the experiment
105 The graph above compares the acidity of apples stored for 270 days under different conditions to the acidity of apples that were just harvested. Some apples were stored at room temperature (20°C), and other apples were stored at 0.5°C. Some of the apples were treated with MCP, an antispoilage chemical. According to these data, it can be inferred that —
A apples treated with MCP and kept at a low temperature retain acidity best
B low temperature prevents any loss of acidity in stored apples
C apples stored at room temperature are unaffected by treatment with MCP
D high temperature promotes acid production in stored apples
106 Which of the following is a strength of this hypothesis?
F It is more logical than past hypotheses.
G It agrees with the opinion of most people.
H It can be examined using scientific means.
J It challenges the current theory of atoms.
Hypothesis: A glass plate covering a tray of
water will keep water molecules from
escaping into the atmosphere.
Observation: After one week the open tray
was dry, but water remained in the covered
107 Which of these is a benefit of knowing whether a person with a respiratory infection has an elevated level of this protein in the
A A set of aerobic exercises can be recommended.
B A diet of essential nutrients can be recommended.
C A decision can be made about whether to take an x-ray.
D A decision can be made about whether to use antibiotics.
Research shows that levels of a certain
protein are elevated in the blood of people
with a bacterial infection. People with a viral
infection show only trace amounts of the
protein. The level of the protein can be
determined in about an hour after a blood
108 Which of the following conclusions is supported by these data?
A Alertness is directly related to level of distraction.
B Shuffling methods can affect alertness.
C Alertness levels vary during the day.
D Long periods of rest improve alertness.
WHAT TIME OF DAY ARE YOU MOST ALERT?
Assumption: The ability to sort playing
cards is an indication of alertness.
1. Shuffle a deck of playing cards
2. Time how long it takes to sort the
cards into the four suits
3. Repeat the activity at the same
times for five days
109 Which of these fails to support the idea that water’s natural place is on the ground?
Ancient Greeks and Science
The ancient Greeks developed a set of assumptions, based on observations, to explain how the universe works. These observations led the Greeks to believe that the universe was composed of four elements: earth, water, fire, and air. The “theory of natural place” was based on their observations of these four elements. The theory stated that anything not in its natural place would move toward its natural place as soon as an opportunity arose. The theory of natural place was the foundation for the modern understanding of the elements. The following chart describes some observations and assumptions made by the ancient Greeks.
110 Which of these would have the greatest percent of fat content by mass?
A A food with a net mass of 29 grams and with 10 grams of fat
B A food with a net mass of 35 grams and with 13 grams of fat
C A food with a net mass of 45 grams and with 15 grams of fat
D A food with a net mass of 56 grams and with 17 grams of fat
400 μg of vitamin B12, and 50 mg of vitamin B6
per day to improve cardiovascular health. Based
on this information and the nutrition label, the
cardiovascular health benefit of a 1-ounce serving
of this cereal is —
A doubtful because it provides insufficient folate
and vitamin B6 and lacks vitamin B12
B superb because it contains only 22 g of
carbohydrates and 75 mg of sodium
C excellent because it provides all needed
vitamins and is low in fat and cholesterol
D poor because it raises blood cholesterol
levels with its high fat and cholesterol content
112 An herbal company advertises that its product will help people lose weight if they take a tablespoon of the product with a glass of water at bedtime each night. Weight loss is guaranteed if a person does not eat for at least 3 hours before bedtime, gets moderate exercise, and drinks 8 glasses of water each day. Why is the company’s claim difficult to verify?
F The company has yet to disclose the identity of its special herb.
G Numerous uncontrolled variables are involved in evaluating results.
H Fasting lessens the absorption rate of the herb.
J The advertisement lacks data from before and after the weight loss.
113 Which conclusion can reasonably be made about Glycotac based on the promotional brochure?
A All people with diabetes can safely use the product.
B Glycotac is guaranteed to lower blood sugar in people without health problems.
C Using the product may lower blood-sugar levels.
D Glycotac eliminates the need to exercise to control high blood sugar.
114 A magazine included advertisements for two different garlic supplements to promote healthy hearts. The advertisement for Very Good Garlic Extract presents evidence that is more valid because —
A information was gathered in a controlled manner
B it lacks a guarantee
C it lacks personal testimonials to the product’s effectiveness
D information was gathered in more than one country
115 Horses kept in stables sometimes chew on wood. This can lead to damage to the mouth and digestive system. The graph shows the results of a study of a medication that prevents horses from chewing on wood. From the graph, what inference can be made about the effectiveness of the product?A Most horses like the medication.B The medication is most effective between Days 4 and 5.C Most horses will show improvement within 7 days.D The effects of the medication are long lasting.
116 Which of the following makes the effectiveness of this product questionable?
F The product description is for a simple pendulum.
G Many factors can make the paper clip move.
H Metal paper clips react with iron and steel objects.
J The product must be used while walking in a straight line.
scientific support for the information on the
A Data that indicate the gender and average
age of consumers
B A survey showing that many people prefer
C Records that show few requests for money
D A controlled study showing the
effectiveness of pearl calcium
118 The table shows the results of a study testing the effectiveness of an ulcer medication. Why was one group given a sugar tablet?
A To include a control group
B To have an experimental group
C To provide a variety of treatments
D To give the body additional nutrients
119 Which of the following would explain why this film works with a reduced amount of light?
A The film reflects long wavelengths of light efficiently.
B Fewer silver halide granules are present in the film.
C The film refracts brighter light.
D The photochemical reaction can occur in lower intensity light.
120 Which conclusion about AvexTec is supported by information in this advertisement?
F AvexTec is available over the counter at local pharmacies and grocery stores.
G People who take AvexTec every day will seldom experience pain from migraines.
H Research indicates that AvexTec prevents migraine headaches.
J AvexTec can be prescribed to reduce pain from migraines.