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Principles of Information Systems. Chapter 7 The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets. Why Learn About the Internet?. Internet is an important part of most people’s lives Individuals can investigate career opportunities Businesses sell and advertise online

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Principles of Information Systems


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    1. Principles of Information Systems Chapter 7 The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

    2. Why Learn About the Internet? • Internet is an important part of most people’s lives • Individuals can investigate career opportunities • Businesses sell and advertise online • Employees can communicate with coworkers and bosses Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    3. Use and Functioning of the Internet Internet: ? Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 4

    4. Use and Functioning of the Internet • Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information • ARPANET • Ancestor of the Internet • Project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    5. Use and Functioning of the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 6

    6. Use and Functioning of the Internet (continued) • Internet Protocol (IP): communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed • Research to make Internet faster and easier to use • “Digital objects”: allow all types of computer systems to use and share programs and data • Internet2 (I2), Next Generation Internet (NGI), Abilene: provide Internet speeds of up to 2 Gbps or more Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    7. Use and Functioning of the Internet (continued) Table 7.1: A Brief History of the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    8. How the Internet Works • Internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another • If the receiving computer is on a network to which the first computer is directly connected, it can send the message directly • If the receiving computer is not on a network to which the sending computer is connected, the sending computer relays the message to another computer that can forward it • Data is passed in chunks called packets Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    9. How the Internet Works (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 10

    10. How the Internet Works (continued) • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): widely used transport layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications • Uniform Resource Locator (URL): assigned address on the Internet for each computer Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    11. How the Internet Works (continued) • Domain name and IP address - ? • ICANN –Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Table 7.2: U.S. Top-Level Domain Affiliations Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    12. How the Internet Works (continued) • Accessing the Internet • Connect via LAN server • Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)/Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • Connect via an online service: America Online and Microsoft Network • Other ways to connect cell phones, PDAs, and home appliances: e.g., wireless application protocol (WAP) for cell phones Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    13. How the Internet Works (continued) Figure 7.1: Routing Messages over the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    14. How the Internet Works (continued) Figure 7.2: Internet Growth: Number of Internet Domain Names Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    15. How the Internet Works (continued) Figure 7.3: Several Ways to Access the Internet Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    16. Internet Service Providers • Internet service provider (ISP): any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the Internet • Most charge a monthly fee • Many ISPs and online services offer broadband Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cable, or satellite transmission Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    17. Internet Service Providers (continued) Table 7.3: A Representative List of Internet Service Providers Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    18. Internet Service Providers (continued) Table 7.4: Approximate Times to Perform Basic Tasks with Various Internet Connections Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    19. The World Wide Web Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    20. The World Wide Web Also called the Web, WWW, or W3 Menu-based system that uses the client/server model Organizes Internet resources throughout the world into a series of menu pages, or screens, that appear on your computer Hypermedia: tools that connect the data on Web pages, allowing users to access topics in whatever order they wish Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 21

    21. The World Wide Web The World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, The European Organization for Neuclear Research in Geneva[Center Europeane pour la RechercheNucleaire] Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 22

    22. The World Wide Web (continued) • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): standard page description language for Web pages • HTML tags: let the browser know how to format text on a Web page and whether images, sound, and other elements should be inserted • Extensible Markup Language (XML): markup language for Web documents containing structured information, including words, pictures, and other elements Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    23. The World Wide Web (continued) Figure 7.4: Sample Hypertext Markup Language Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    24. The World Wide Web (continued) Web Documents index.html HTML Documents/ Linked Files http://www.buu.ac.th/index.html REQUEST HTTP The Internet HTTP HTTPD Web Server Web Site HTML Document index.html Client Web Browser Web Page Home Page

    25. Web Browsers • Web browser: software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the Web • Menu consists of graphics, titles, and text with hypertext links • Popular Web browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Computer’s Safari • Applet: small program embedded in Web pages • Web browser plug-in:external program that is executed by a Web browser when it is needed Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    26. Search Engines and Web Research • Search engine: Web search tool • Examples: Yahoo.com, Google.com • Most search engines are free • Searches can use words, such as AND and OR to refine the search • Meta-search engine: submits keywords to several individual search engines and returns results from all these search engines Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    27. Search Engines and Web Research (continued) Table 7.6 Popular Search Engines Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    28. Web Programming Languages • Java • Object-oriented programming language from Sun Microsystems based on C++ • Allows small programs (applets) to be embedded within an HTML document Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    29. Web Programming Languages (continued) Figure 7.6: Downloading an Applet from a Web Server Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    30. Web Programming Languages (continued) • Other programming languages used to develop Web sites • JavaScript • VBScript • ActiveX • Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    31. Developing Web Content • Suggestions for creating a Web page • Computer must be linked to a Web server • Web browser program needed to view the HTML pages you create • Options for designing the Web page • Write your copy with a word processor, and use an HTML converter to convert the page into HTML format • Use an HTML editor to write text and add HTML tags • Edit an existing HTML template to meet your needs • Use an ordinary text editor and type the start and end tags for each item Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    32. Developing Web Content (continued) • Suggestions for creating a Web page (continued): • See HTML page in browser; correct any mistakes • Add links to your home page • Store pictures as files before adding them • Draw them using a graphics software package • Copy pictures from other Web pages (with permission) • Buy a disk of clip art • Scan photos • Use a digital camera Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    33. Developing Web Content (continued) • Suggestions for creating a Web page (continued): • Add sound by using a microphone connected to your computer to create a file, and then adding a link to the file on a Web page • Upload the HTML file to your Web site • Review the Web page to make sure that all links are correctly established to other Web sites • Advertise your Web page to others and encourage them to take a look and send feedback by e-mail Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    34. Web Services • Web services: standards and tools that streamline and simplify communication among Web sites for business and personal purposes • XML is used within a Web page to describe and transfer data between Web service applications Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    35. Web Services (continued) • Other components used in Web service applications: • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) • WSDL (Web Services Description Language) • UDDI (Universal Discovery Description and Integration) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    36. Internet and Web Applications • The types of Internet and Web applications available are vast and ever expanding Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    37. Business Uses of the Web • In 1991, Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) Association was established to allow businesses to connect to the Internet • Firms use the Internet for many types of applications Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    38. E-Mail, Instant Messaging, and Push Technology • E-mail • No longer limited to simple text messages • Can embed sound and images • Can attach files • Instant messaging: online, real-time communication between two or more people who are connected to the Internet • Push technology: automatic transmission of information over the Internet rather than make users search for it with their browsers Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    39. E-Mail, Instant Messaging, and Push Technology (continued) Table 7.7: Some Common Abbreviations Used in Personal E-Mail Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    40. Internet Cell Phones and Handheld Computers • Cell phones connected to the Internet allow people to search for information, buy products, and chat with business associates and friends • Short Message Service (SMS) or texting • Brief text messages can be sent between two or more cell phone users • Handheld computers and other devices are connected to the Internet using phone lines or wireless connections Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    41. Career Information and Job Searching • Use search engines to look for specific companies or industries • Internet sites specialize in helping you find job information and apply for jobs online • Examples: www.monster.com, www.hotjobs.com, and www.careerbuilder.com Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    42. Telnet and FTP • Telnet: terminal emulation protocol that enables users to log on to other computers on the Internet to gain access to public files • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): protocol that describes a file transfer process between a host and a remote computer and allows users to copy files from one computer to another Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    43. SSH Secure Shell File Transfer Upload Download

    44. Web Log (Blog), Video Log (Vlog), and Podcasting • Web log or blog: Web site that people create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range of topics • Video log or vlog: video content placed on the Internet using the same overall approach as a blog • Podcast: audio broadcast over the Internet • People and corporations use podcasts to listen to audio material, increase revenues, or advertise products and services Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    45. Usenet and Newsgroups • Usenet: system closely allied with the Internet that uses e-mail to provide a centralized news service • Protocol that describes how groups of messages can be stored on and sent between computers • Newsgroups: online discussion groups that focus on specific topics Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    46. Usenet and Newsgroups (continued) Table 7.8: Selected Usenet Newsgroups Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    47. Chat Rooms • Chat room: enables two or more people to engage in interactive “conversations” over the Internet • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) requires participants to type their conversation rather than speak • Voice chat allows participants to speak their conversation • Must have a microphone, sound card, speakers, a fast modem or broadband, and voice-chat software compatible with the other participants’ Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    48. Internet Phone and Videoconferencing Services • Internet phone service • Relatively inexpensive, especially for international calls • Voice-over-IP (VoIP) technology • Network managers can route phone calls and fax transmissions over the same network they use for data • Internet videoconferencing • Supports both voice and visual communications • Webcasts or Webinars Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

    49. Content Streaming • Method for transferring multimedia files, radio broadcasts, and other content over the Internet • Data stream of voice and pictures plays more or less continuously without a break, or with very few breaks • Enables users to browse large files in real time • Works best when the transmission of a file can keep up with the playback of the file Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition