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Dossier 2 – New France. Chapter 3 Currents of Thought & Cultural Expression Mr. Thompson– History 404. Reminder…1605-1763. Early culture in New France? New France = The Mother Country The culture of Les Canadiens… A result of the Fur Trade with the Natives
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Dossier 2– New France Chapter 3 Currents of Thought & Cultural Expression Mr. Thompson– History 404
Reminder…1605-1763 • Early culture in New France? • New France = The Mother Country • The culture of Les Canadiens… • A result of the Fur Trade with the Natives • What was the biggest cultural influence during those early times? • The Catholic Church. • The Bishop was even a part of the politics.
The Church and Society • During the 17th century: what was the political structure of France? • Monarchy = the divine right to rule • Thus, the King and the Church were seen as one entity. • The Church promoted the King and in return… • The King used the Church for help with… • Education, politics, taxes, hospitals, maintaining order, etc.
The Church and Society • The Catholic organization: • Pope • Cardinals • Arch-Bishops • Bishops • Priests • The Bishops tended to be from… while the parish priests were mostly... • So what was life like for the residents of New France?
The Church and Politics • In 1659 - Francois of Laval was appointed by the Pope as the first Bishop of New France. • Why was Laval’s appointment a big deal? • What did the Pope want him to do? • Convert the Amerindians, • Controlling the Eau de Vie and your basic debauchery caused by the Fur Trade.
The Church and Politics • Ultramontanism • During the 17th Century in France • Used when defending the Pope’s influence over political decisions in France (and Europe). • Demanded religious supremacy over civil society.
The Church and Politics • Gallicianism • Created in response to French Ultramontanism • The Gallicians believed that the Pope was important… • BUT – he should not have authority over local decisions. • These decisions were probably better handled by local religious authorities. • I.E.: the Bishop of France
The Church and Politics • During Laval’s time in New France: • Laval’s authority was undermined by the Ultramontanist movement • BUT he did succeed in taxing the alcohol trade. • AND he did create several new parishes • AND the Grand Séminaire de Quebec for training new clergy.
Church and Education • In New France, were there teachers? • Most of the teaching was done by priests, monks, nuns, etc. • Why? Because they were the only ones who were really educated and willing to give up their time. • Professions • Taught by master craftsmen, • Schools were only available in…. • Major cities: Quebec & Ville-Marie
Church and Education • Outside of the cities? • Small rural parishes • Visited by traveling teachers • Or the local parish priest would hold classes • Once or twice a week. • What was the main goal of these classes?
Church and Education • New France’s citizens: • Most made it to Grade 2 • So…you could write your name… • And you knew enough to get by in church. • Conclusion? • The majority of the population was illiterate, • Only the elite, the clergy and some artisans knew how to read and write.
Church and Education • Further education: • The Seminary • France • The Result? • There is no real “Canadian” literature produced during this time. Most artistic productions simply reflect the trends in France.
Truly Canadian Culture • Settling in Canada • Climate • geography • Society - the Amerindian influence. • What did the Europeans adopt? • growing local vegetables (squash, corn and beans) • Amerindian means of traveling (canoes and snowshoes). • Family values? • The French vs. The Amerindians
Truly Canadian Culture Independence became the norm European Politicians of the colony The “Divine Right” of the King… Governors started to see themselves like good fathers or the head of a large family.
Truly Canadian Culture “industrious…handy with an axe; they make their own tools and utensils; build their own houses and barns…They love to hunt, navigate, travel and are more refined then their counterparts in France.” -
Popular Culture • Because everyone was illiterate, how was culture transmitted? • Storytelling. • social gatherings and celebrations. • The most popular pass times were: • playing cards, • listening to stories, • dancing (even though it was prohibited by the church) • the fiddle!
Activity #2 – French Canadian Traditions Choose one French Canadian tradition from the French Regime (1605-1763) that interests you and do some research on it… Tell me where and when it originated, What it was used for and how it helped support or express French Canadian culture. Is it still being practiced today? DO NOT FORGET TO LIST YOUR SOURCES!