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Review of Greek Grammar. Nouns and Case Endings Making Sense of Verb Tenses Understanding Different Moods Those Pesky Participles and Irritating Infinitives. Nouns and Case Endings. Eight cases in the Greek grammar system: Nominative The case of designation

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review of greek grammar

Review of Greek Grammar

Nouns and Case Endings

Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Understanding Different Moods

Those Pesky Participles and Irritating Infinitives

nouns and case endings
Nouns and Case Endings
  • Eight cases in the Greek grammar system:
    • Nominative
      • The case of designation
      • Typically the subject of the sentence
      • oJ a[nqrwpoVginwvskei(“The man knows.”)
    • Genitive (“of”)
      • The case of description (often describing a possessor)
      • Attributes quality to the word it modifies
      • oJoi\koVtou: ajnqrwvpou(“the house of the man” or “the man’s house”)
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Nouns and Case Endings
  • Ablative (“from”)
    • Often combined with the Genitive case
    • Uses the same form as the Genitive case
    • The case of separation
    • oJ a[vnqrwpoVpevmpeitou;VdouvlouVtou: oi[kou (“the man sends the slaves from the house”)
  • Dative (“to”)
    • Case of interest
    • Used often to express the indirect object of a verb
    • oJajpovstoloVlevgeilovgouVtoi:VajnqrwvpoiV(“The apostle says words to the men.”)
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Nouns and Case Endings
  • Locative (“in”)
    • Often combined with the Dative case
    • Uses the same form as the Dative case
    • The case of location or position
    • oJ a[nqrwpoVdidavskeitw/: oi[kw/ (“The man teaches in the house.”)
  • Instrumental (“with” or “by”)
    • Often combined with the Dative case
    • Uses the same form as the Dative case
    • The case of means
    • oJ a[nqrwpoVdidavskeilovgoiV(“The man teaches with words.”)
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Nouns and Case Endings
  • Accusative
    • The case of limitation
    • It marks the limit or end of an action
    • Mainly used as the direct object of a verb
    • oJ a[nqrwpoVlevgeilovgouV(“The man says words.”)
  • Vocative
    • The case of address
    • ajdelfev, blevpwoi\kon(“Brother, I see a house.”)
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Nouns and Case Endings
  • There are three declensions in the Greek language:
    • 1st Declension - a sound predominates
    • 2nd Declension - o sound predominates
    • 3rd Declension – consonant stems predominate
  • A Greek noun is identified in three ways:
    • Case
    • Gender (masculine, feminine, neuter)
    • Number (singular or plural)
    • Ex. – Nominative masculine singular (NMS)
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Nouns and Case Endings
  • 1st Declension Nouns

Singular

Feminine Nouns Masculine Nouns

“day” “glory” “voice” “disciple” “young man”

Nom. hJmevradovxafwnhvmaqhthvVneanivaV

Gen. hJmevraVdovxhVfwnh:Vmaqhtou: neanivou

Dat. hJmevra/ dovxh/ fwnh:/ maqhth:/ neaniva/

Acc. hJmevrandovxanfwnhvnmaqhthvnneanivan

Voc.hJmevradovxafwnhvmaqhtavneaniva

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Nouns and Case Endings
  • 1st Declension

Plural

Feminine Nouns Masculine Nouns

“days” “glories” “voices” “disciples” “young men”

N & V hJmevraidovxaifwnaivmaqhtaivneanivai

Gen. hJmerw:ndoxw:nfwnw:nmaqhtw:nneaniw:n

Dat. hJmevraiVdovxaiVfwnai:Vmaqhtai:VneanivaiV

Acc.hJmevraVdovxaVfwnavVmaqhtavVneanivaV

nouns and case ending
Nouns and Case Ending
  • The Definite Article

Singular Plural

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.

Nom. oJhJtovoiJaiJtav

Gen. tou: th:Vtou: tw:ntw:ntw:n

Dat. tw:/ th:/ tw:/ toi:Vtai:Vtoi:V

Acc. tovnthvntovtou:VtavVtav

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Nouns and Case Endings
  • 2nd Declension

Masculine

Singular Plural

Nom. oJ a[nqrwpoV (on) oiJ a[nqrwpoi (a)

Gen. tou: ajnqrwvpoutw:najnqrwvpwn

Dat. tw/: ajnqrwvpw/ toi:VajnqrwvpoiV

Acc. to;n a[nqrwpon (on) tou;VajnqrwvpouV (a)

Voc. a[nqrwpe a[nqrwpoi

*Neuter endings are in brackets (def art. – to [sing.] and ta [pl.])

* Feminine nouns take the feminine definite article, but take the same noun endings as the masculine nouns (hJoJdovV – “the way”).

noun and case endings
Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension
    • Most difficult of the declensions to master.
    • It contains over thirty paradigms.
    • Characteristics of the 3rd declension:
      • Gen. sing. ends in -V (-oVmost frequently]
      • Dat. sing. ends in –i
      • Nom., Voc., Acc. pl. end in -V (-eVand -oV most frequently]
      • Gen. pl. ends in –wn
      • Dat. pl. ends in –si(n)
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Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension

Singular

Masc./Fem.Neuter

Nom. -V, none none

Gen. -oV -oV

Dat. -i -i

Acc. -a or -n none

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Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension

Plural

Masc./Fem.Neuter

Nom. -eV -a

Gen. -wn -wn

Dat. -si -si

Acc. -aV -a

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Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension (paradigm examples)
    • oJ a[rcwn(stem is ajrcont-) (Masculine)

Singular Plural

Nom. a[rcwn a[rconteV

Gen. a[rcontoVajrcovntwn

Dat. a[rconti a[rcousi(n)

Acc. a[rconta a[rcontaV

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Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension (paradigm examples)
    • hJsavrx(stem is sark-) (Feminine)

Singular Plural

Nom. savrxsavrkeV

Gen. sarkovVsarkw:n

Dat. sarkivsarxiv(n)

Acc. savrkasavrkaV

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Noun and Case Endings
  • 3rd Declension (paradigm examples)
    • to; sw:ma(stem is swmat-) (Neuter)

Singular Plural

Nom. sw:maswvmata

Gen. swvmatoVswmavtwn

Dat. swvmatiswvmasi(n)

Acc. swvmaswvmata

making sense of verb tenses
Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Identifying Verbs (Parsing)
    • Tense
      • Tense is the quality of a verb that deals with action.
      • Verbs have time of action (past, present, future).
      • Verbs have kind of action (linear or punctiliar).
    • Voice
      • Voice is the indicator of relationship between verb and subject
      • Three types of voice: active, passive, middle
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Identifying verbs (cont.)
    • Mood
      • Mood helps to discover the relations of action to reality.
      • Action is either actually taking place or is potential.
    • Person (first, second, third)
    • Number (singular or plural)

* 1st person singular Aorist active indicative (1sAAI)

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Present Indicative
    • The present tense indicates progressive action at the present time.
    • The indicative mood relates the reality of action from the viewpoint of the speaker.

Present Active Indicative of luvw

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Present Middle/Passive Indicative of luvw

  • Notice the middle and passive forms are the same.
  • Function will be determined by context.
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Future Indicative
    • Formation of the future indicative:
      • Future active indicative:

primary stem + s + primary endings = Future

lu+ s + w= luvsw

      • Future passive indicative:

primary aorist stem + s + pass. personal endings = FPI

luqh + s + omai= luqhvsomai

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Future Active Indicative

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Future Middle Indicative

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Future Passive Indicative

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Imperfect Indicative
    • The imperfect is continuous action in past time.
    • It is best illustrated by a single line ().
    • The imperfect is signified by the syllabic augment - e
    • If the verb begins with a vowel, the word take the temporal augment, where the original vowel is lengthened:
      • e lengthens to h (ejgeivrw – h[geiron)
      • o lengthens to w (ojfeivlw – w[feivlon)
      • a lengthens to h (ajkouvw – h[kouon)
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Imperfect Active Indicative

augment + present stem + secondary active endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Imperfect Middle & Passive Indicative

augment + primary stem + secondary mid/pass. end.

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • The function of the imperfect tense:
    • Progressive past action (Descriptive)

“he was speaking”

    • Attempted past action (Conative)

“he tried to speak”

    • Repeated past action (Iterative)

“he kept on speaking”

    • Beginning past action (Inceptive)

“he began to speak”

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Aorist Active Indicative (First & Second)
    • This is a tense that speaks of past time.
    • The kind of action is punctiliar (“snapshot”).
    • The aorist is written in the simple past tense.
    • Like the imperfect, it takes the augment (the augment rules apply just as in the imperfect).
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

First Aorist Active Indicative

Augment + present stem + sa + secondary endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

First Aorist Middle Indicative

Augment + first aorist active stem + secondary mid./pass. end

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

First Aorist Passive Indicative

Augment + present stem + passive voice morpheme + secondary active

endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Second Aorist Indicative
    • Second Aorist functions the same as first aorist.
    • The second aorist does not take the s past tense morpheme.
    • The stem changes in the second aorist.
    • This happens in the English past tense:
      • preach becomes preached
      • teach becomes taught
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Second Aorist Active Indicative of leivpw (“I leave”)

Augment + Aorist stem + secondary endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Second Aorist Middle Indicative

Augment + aorist stem + secondary middle ending

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Second Aorist Passive Indicative

of ajpostevllw

Augment + Aorist stem + secondary active endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • Perfect Indicative
    • This is the Greek tense of completed action with a resulting state of being ( ).
    • The primary emphasis is the resulting state of being.
    • The perfect is easy to spot because of the reduplicated stem.
    • Also, the perfect tense sign is k.
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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Perfect Active Indicative

reduplicated stem + ka + secondary active endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses

Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative

reduplicated stem + primary middle/passive personal endings

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Making Sense of Verb Tenses
  • The Pluperfect Indicative
    • It represents the past tense of the perfect.
    • Because it is past, it takes an augment.
    • The pluperfect is seldom used in the NT (John 9:22).

Pluperfect Active Indicative

understanding different moods
Understanding Different Moods
  • Summary of the Various Moods
    • Indicative – “The child runs”
    • Subjunctive – “If the child should run”
      • Expresses action not really taking place, but is objectively possible.
      • The child has the ability to run.
      • Of the three potential moods, this one is nearest to reality.
    • Optative – “Oh, that the child would run”
      • Expresses action not really taking place, but is subjectively possible.
      • This is the mood furthest removed from reality.
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Imperative – “Run, child!”
    • Expresses action that is not really taking place, but is volitionally possible.
    • It is two stepsfrom real action of the indicative mood.
  • Indicative is the only mood which speaks of real action.
  • The other three moods are those of potential action.
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Understanding Different Moods
  • The Subjunctive Mood
    • Forms of the Subjunctive
      • This mood occurs rarely in the perfect tense.
      • Besides the rare cases in the perfect tense, this mood occurs only in the present and aorist tenses.
      • Good News!! – The subjunctive mood is the most regular of all the moods. This means that the endings are the same throughout each conjugation.
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Understanding Different Moods

Present Active Subjunctive of luvw

present stem + lengthened connecting vowel + primary endings

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Understanding Different Moods

Present Middle/Passive Subjunctive of luvw

present stem + lengthened connecting vowel + primary mid/pass

endings

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Understanding Different Moods
  • Further notes on the subjunctive
    • The first aorist active and middle subjunctive is based on the same endings with the added s after the primary stem (luvsw, luvsh/V, luvsh/, etc.)
    • The first aorist passive subjunctive is formed by adding the q to the present stem plus the primary endings with the circumflex accent (luqw:, luqh:/V, luqh/:, etc.).
    • The second aorist is built on the stem change of the second aorist with no s plus the primary and middle endings.
    • There is no augment in the subjunctive mood.
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Various expressions of the subjunctive:
    • Hortatory Subjunctive – used in first person plural
      • e[lqwmeneijVto;noi\kon(1pAAS)
      • “Let us go into the house.”
    • Prohibitive Subjunctive – used in the aorist second person; forbids the beginning of an act
      • eijVpeirasmo;nmh; eijsenevgkh/VhJma:V(2sAAS)
      • “Lead us not into temptation.”
      • “Don’t ever lead us into temptation.”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Deliberative Subjunctive – used to express a question whether rhetorical or real
    • tivei[pwuJmi:n (1sAAS)
    • “What shall I say to you?”
  • Emphatic Negation Subjunctive – employs double negative
    • oujmh; ejkquvgwsin(3pAAS)
    • “They shall be no means escape.”
  • Final Subjunctive – use of subordinate clause to express purpose
    • e[rcomaii{naei[pwaujtw:/
    • “I come in order that I may speak to him.”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Probable Future Condition Subjunctive
    • This is used in conjunction with eja;n.
    • Expresses action that is not really taking place but which probably will take place in the future.
    • jEa;nei[pwmen
    • “If we say.”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • The Imperative Mood
    • Introduction
      • Appears in the present and aorist tenses only
      • There is no first person in the imperative mood
      • The third person in the imperative must be translated with a permissive idea in mind – “let him . . .”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Forms of the Imperative

Present Active Imperative

Present Middle / Passive Imperative

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Understanding Different Moods

First Aorist Active Imperative

First Aorist Middle Imperative

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Understanding Different Moods

First Aorist Passive Imperative

Second Aorist Active Imperative

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Understanding Different Moods

Second Aorist Middle Imperative

Second Aorist Passive Imperative

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Understanding Different Moods
  • Functions of the Imperative
    • The imperative is the mood which expresses action which is to be realized by the exercise of the will of one person upon that of another.
    • Like the subjunctive, the time of action is lost in the imperative mood.
    • The present imperative is action which is in progress
      • lu:eaujtovn – “continue loosing him”
    • The aorist imperative is action which is not yet started
      • lu:sonaujtovn – “loose him”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Various expressions of the imperative mood
    • Cohortative – a positive command
    • Prohibitive – a negative command (only in the present)
      • mh; lu:eaujtovn – “stop loosing him”
      • mh; levgetetau:ta – “stop saying these things”
    • Entreaty – expression of a request as opposed to a command
      • pavter a{gie, thvrhsonaujtou;Vejntw/: ojnovmativ sou.
      • “Holy Father, keep them in thy name.”
    • Permissive – third person imperative
      • luevtwto;n a[nqrwpon – “let him continue loosing the man”
      • lusavtwto;n a[nqrwpon – “let him loose (start loosing) the man”
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Understanding Different Moods
  • The Optative Mood
    • Formation of the Optative Mood
      • There are only 67 instances of the optative mood in the Greek NT.
      • This is our third mood of potential.
      • The letter combinations of oi, ai, and ei are frequent in the optative mood.
      • Like the other moods of potential, the augment is not present in the aorist.
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Understanding Different Moods
  • Function of the Optative Mood
    • This is the mood which is the furthest removed from reality.
      • The indicative mood declares something to be.
      • The subjunctive mood expresses a feasible action.
      • The imperative mood expresses a command and is contingent upon the volition of the one receiving the command.
    • Hewett stated in his grammar, “ . . . the optative expresses a polite request without any connotation of anticipated realization; it has an air of perplexity or possibility; it always has a remoteness with regard to whether or not the action might come into being” (p. 194).
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Understanding Different Moods
  • The optative can be translated into English using various words that convey the idea of remoteness: (may, can, might, should, could, would)
  • The optative of wishing:
    • plhrwvsaiuJma:VpavshVcara:Vkai; eijrhvnhV
    • “may he fill you with all joy and peace” (Rom. 15:13)
    • oJqeo;Vth:VeijrhvnhVaJgiavsaiuJma:VoJlotelei:V
    • “may the God of peace sanctify you entirely” (1 Thess. 5:23)
    • mhgevnoito – “may it never be” (Rom. 6:2, 15; 7:7) (“God forbid”)
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Understanding Different Moods
  • The potentialoptative
    • Potential of perplexity - mhvpoteaujto;Vei[h oJCristovV(PAopt.)

“whether he should be the Christ.”

(Luke 3:15)

    • Potential of possibility - tiv a]n poihvsaientw:/ jIhsou: (AAopt.)

“what they might do to Jesus”

(Luke 6:11)

  • The fourth class conditionoptative: 1 Peter 3:14
    • ajll j eijkai; pavscoite(PAopt.)
    • “but if you should suffer”