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Psychoanalysis. Developed by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation – the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind. Dr. Sigmund Freud. 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939.

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  • Developed by Sigmund Freud
  • Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality
  • Emphasizes unconscious motivation – the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind
dr sigmund freud

Dr. Sigmund Freud

6 May 1856 –

23 September 1939

early life
Early Life
  • 1859: Moves to Leipzig
  • 1860: Moves to Vienna
  • 3 brothers and 5 sisters
  • 1865: Enters Leopoldstäter Real-und Obergymnasium, where he is a brilliant student from the outset
  • 1873: Graduates by passing his exams most impressively
  • 1876: Wins a research grant
  • 1877: Joins Ernst Brücke, German physiologist teaching at the University of Vienna
  • 1881: Obtains his medical degree
1885 1886
  • Studies in France with French neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot
  • They work at the mental hospital, the Salpêtrière
  • 1886: Returns via Berlin, where he studies children’s diseases
    • Opens private practice
    • Marries Martha Bernays
1887 1900
  • 1877: Mathilde born
  • 1877: Meets Wilhelm Fliess
  • 1888: Begins to publish papers
  • 1889: Jean-Martin born
  • 1891: Oliver born
  • 1893: Sophie born
  • 1895: Anna born
  • 1895: Studies on Hysteria, with Breuer
  • 1896: The word “psychoanalysis” appears in print for the first time
  • 1899/1900: The Interpretation of Dreams

The Interpretation

of Dreams, 1899/1900

1901 1910
  • 1901/1904: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
  • 1902: Founds the Psychological Wednesday Society
  • 1905: Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious
  • 1905: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
  • 1907: Jung first visits Freud’s home
  • 1908: First International Congress of Psychoanalysts
  • 1909: Little Hans, Rat Man
  • 1910: Publishes more papers

The Psychopathology

Of Everyday Life,



Three Essays on the

Theory of Sexuality,




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psychoanalytic approach
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Conscious – all things we are aware of at any given moment
psychoanalytic approach24
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Preconscious – everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness
psychoanalytic approach25
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Unconscious –inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives
psychoanalytic divisions of the mind
Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind
  • Id—instinctual drives present at birth
    • does not distinguish between reality and fantasy
    • operates according to the pleasure principle
  • Ego—develops out of the id in infancy
    • understands reality and logic
    • mediator between id and superego
  • Superego
    • internalization of society’s moral standards
    • responsible for guilt
id the pleasure principle
Id: The Pleasure Principle
  • Pleasure principle—drive toward immediate gratification, most fundamental human motive
  • Sources of energy
    • Eros—life instinct, perpetuates life
    • Thanatos—death instinct, aggression, self-destructive actions
  • Libido—sexual energy or motivation
ego the reality principle
Ego: The Reality Principle
  • Reality principle —ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of reality (ex: waiting turn in line)
  • Ego—rational, organized, logical, mediates demands of reality
  • Can repress desires that cannot be met in an acceptable manner
superego conscience
Superego: Conscience
  • Internalization of societal and parental values
  • Allows you to judge right or wrong
  • Can be harshly punitive using feelings of guilt
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms

Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety

defense mechanisms32
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression —keeping anxiety-producing thoughts out of the conscious mind
  • Reaction formation —replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite
defense mechanisms33
Defense Mechanisms
  • Displacement—when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego
  • Sublimation—displacement to activities that are valued by society
defense mechanisms34
Defense Mechanisms
  • Projection—reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else
  • Rationalization—reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts
  • Regression—retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development
psychosexual stages
Psychosexual Stages
  • Freud’s five stages of personality development, each associated with a particular erogenous zone
  • Fixation—an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it was achieved in these stages (someone who chews gum, bites fingernails, smokes, may have unresolved oral psychosexual conflicts)
oral stage birth 1 year
Oral Stage (birth – 1 year)
  • Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure
  • Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly
  • Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood
anal stage 1 3 years
Anal Stage (1 – 3 years)
  • Anus is associated with pleasure
  • Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly
  • Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood
phallic stage 3 5 years
Phallic Stage (3 – 5 years)
  • Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals
  • Oedipus or Electra complex can occur
  • Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females
latency stage 5 puberty
Latency Stage (5 – puberty)
  • Sexuality is repressed
  • Children participate in hobbies, school, and same-sex friendships
genital stage puberty on
Genital Stage (puberty on)
  • Sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others
  • Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work; fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages