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Challenges to Physical Growth. Two major problems concerning nutrition: Not getting enough food Getting too much food. Research shows that 1 in 3 children under the age of 5 suffer from malnutrition as indicated by being small for his/her age.

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challenges to physical growth

Challenges to Physical Growth

Two major problems concerning nutrition:

Not getting enough food

Getting too much food

slide2
Research shows that 1 in 3 children under the age of 5 suffer from malnutrition as indicated by being small for his/her age.

Severe malnutrition can be detected by comparing an infant’s weight to a comparable norm.

Malnourishment is especially dangerous during infancy due to the rapid periods of growth which can damage the brain, affecting a child’s intelligence and ability to pay attention

malnutrition is not limited to underdeveloped countries

Malnutrition is not limited to underdeveloped countries!

Approximately 20% of American children receive inadequate amounts of iron and 10% of American children got to bed hungry

consequences of poor nutrition
Consequences of poor nutrition
  • In infancy, the most serious nourishment problem is protein-calorie malnutrition, where a child does not consume sufficient food to thrive.
    • If nutrition is not adequate the body stops growing- but NOT the head.
  • Head-sparringis a phenomenon that from allows the brain to continue growing, not the body. This results from malnutrition (Georgieff, 2001).
severe malnutrition
Marasmus

Malnutrition brought about by the ingestion of too few calories.

This is related to severe protein-calorie malnutrition in which growth stops and the infant eventually dies

Is always hungry

Has the face of an old man

Is very thin

Has muscle atrophy

Easily gets sick

Looks weak

Severe Malnutrition
kwashiorkor
Kwashiorkor
  • Malnutrition brought about by chronic, inadequate protein that causes the child’s face, legs and abdomen to bloat with water
  • This in itself is not usually fatal, but makes the child vulnerable to death and disease
    • Has swollen face, hands, feet, and abdomen
    • Easily gets sick
    • Has dry, thin, pale hair
    • Has dry skin
    • Has sores on the skin
    • Has thin upper arms
    • Looks sad
    • Is underweight
slide7
Kwashiorkor

Marasmus

malnourished children
Malnourished Children
  • Malnourished children tend to reduce their energy expenditure and withdraw from stimulation
    • Makes them quiet, passive, lethargic, less responsive in social interactions, and less attentive in school
  • Malnourished children are less likely to get the same benefits from attending school than healthier children – thus, affecting their intellectual growth
  • Because of their small size and delayed development, malnourished children may be perceived as younger and less competent than they actually are
slide9

Unhealthy weight gain due to poor diet and lack of exercise is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year.

Between 16 - 33% of U.S children and adolescents are obese

obesity
Obesity
  • Obesity most commonly begins in childhood between the ages of 5 and 6, and during adolescence
  • In the past 25- 30 years, the number of overweight children has doubled and the number of overweight adolescents has tripled
  • Overweight children are at risk for many medical problems, including high blood pressure and diabetes.
  • Studies have shown that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80% chance of becoming an obese adult
risks and complications of obesity
Risks and Complications of Obesity
  • Increased risk of:
    • Heart Disease
    • Type II Diabetes
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Breathing Problems
    • Sleeping Problems
  • Emotional Problems
      • Lower self-esteem
      • Less liked by peers
      • Depression
      • Anxiety
      • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
why do children become obese
Why do children become obese?
  • Heredity is a factor in obesity. Being genetically prone to inactivity makes it more difficult to burn off calories and easier to gain weight
  • If one parent is obese, there is a 50 percent chance that the children will also be obese.
  • However, when both parents are obese, the children have an 80 percent chance of being obese.
slide13
Several studies indicate that prejudice against obese people starts as early as 3 to 5 years old.

This means before obese kids reach kindergarten, they're often called names, have difficulty making friends, are excluded from activities and are picked last for teams.

Such an environment of rejection typically adds to weight gain because it discourages active involvement in athletics and encourages alone-time activities, such as watching television, playing video games or using the Internet.

what other factors influence the development of childhood obesity

What other factors influence the development of childhood obesity?

EnvironmentTelevisionParents

turn off that tv
Turn off that TV!!
  • The more time children spent watching television, the greater their weight increase
    • One-third of children and adolescents watch 3 or more hours of television per day
  • Children who spend more than 5 hours a day in front of the television are much more likely to be obese than are children who spend 2 hours a day or less in front of the television
    • Dietz in his study also found that the incidence of obesity increased by 2% for every additional hour of television watched (Dietz, 1985)
childhood obesity
Childhood Obesity
  • In another study of preschoolers (ages 1-4), a child's risk of being overweight increased by 6% for every hour of television watched per day
    • If that child had a TV in his or her bedroom, the odds of being overweight jumped an additional 31% for every hour watched
slide17
In analyzing the data from a national survey between 1988 and 1994, researchers found that the 26% of children who watched four or more hours of television a day had significantly more body fat than those who watched less television. (Andersen, 1998).
slide18

Lack of exercise: 20% of US children participated in two or less vigorous physical activities per week

bone development and metabolism
In related studies on significant health issues, researchers are finding that increased television viewing and subsequent lack of exercise affect children adversely in two areas

Bone development and metabolism

more research on obesity and tv
More research on Obesity and TV
  • Early childhood is a time of tremendous growth for children and the amount of physical activity positively affects the strength and amount of bone mass developed. A study of preschoolers found that girls who watched more television measured lower in the amount of hipbone density (Janz, 2001).
  • Another study on the relationship between metabolic rates and television viewing found that metabolic rates during television viewing were significantly lower than during resting periods for a group of obese and normal weight children, ages 8 to 12 years old (Klesges, 1993).
how can parents effect obesity

How Can Parents Effect Obesity?

Rewarding good behavior with food.

“if you’re good we’ll go to Mc Donalds …”

slide22
Research suggests that parents should avoid using food as a reward, especially high-calories foods.
    • Making them a reward may only make them more desirable, verbal praise is more effective.
physically inactive families contribute to developing an inactive lifestyle
Physically inactive families contribute to developing an inactive lifestyle
  • Kids don't have a lot of good fitness-minded role models — less than 50 percent of Americans exercise 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week.
    • It's hard to be motivated without inspiration.
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