Diversity of reproduction. Asexual reproduction Parthenogenesis Hermaphrodites Sequential hermaphrodites - protogyny (F M) or protoandry (M F) Sexual reproduction. Male/female reproductive strategy.
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Males should, therefore, fight over females and females should select for resources
A form of natural selection that occurs when individuals vary in their ability to compete with others for mates or in their attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.
Indirect fitness-- the genes contributed by an individual indirectly by helping non-descendant kin, in effect creating relatives that would not have existed without the help
found in only about 3% of birds and mammals (roughly 200-300 bird species and about 120 mammal species)
If mothers are polyandrous (mate multiple times), then workers may be more closely related to their brothers than to half-nephews (r=1/8).