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What Is a System? • A group of interrelated components (things) that work together to achieve a desired goal. • A technological system produces results through the use of technology. Or it may be small, like a cell phone. A system may be huge, like a space shuttle.
The Basic System Model People Capital Time Information Energy Materials Tools and Machines Resources • All systems include an Input, Process, and Output • During the Process the seven technological Resources are used. Process Action part of a system. Combines resources that respond to the input to produce a result. Output The actual result Input The desired Result (What you want to happen)
Open-Loop System People Capital Time Information Energy Materials Tools and Machines Resources • A system that has no way of monitoring or adjusting itself is an open-loop system. • Since you can’t control the temperature, only the time the microwave is heating your food, it may come out too hot or not hot enough. Process A microwave combines the resources to heat your food for a certain amount of time. Output Food is warm Input A hot meal
Can You Think of Other Open-Loop Systems? Woodstove Does the temperature remain constant? Washer/Dryer Do the clothes always come out clean and dry? Train Does the speed remain constant while travelling uphill, downhill, or on a flat?
What Is Different in These Systems? Furnace Temperature is controlled by setting thermostat to desired level. Bicycle Rider watches road and adjusts pedaling or braking. Car Speed Driver looks at speedometer regularly and adjusts speed as needed or sets cruise control.
Closed Loop System Resources Process Output Input Comparator Controller Feedback Loop Monitor A system that monitors and adjusts to get the desired output.
Closed Loop System People Capital Time Information Energy Materials Tools and Machines Resources Output Car speed is 50 mph Process A car combines the resources to move the car and transport the riders. Controller Driver presses brake or accelerator. Comparator Driver compares actual speed to desired speed. Input Go 30 mph Combination of speedometer, driver’s eye, and driver’s brain form the feedback loop. Monitor Driver sees car is going too fast. Feedback Loop
Image Resources Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip Art. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx