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Productive, profitable, and resilient agriculture and aquaculture systems (G2) Manoranjan Mondal PowerPoint Presentation
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Productive, profitable, and resilient agriculture and aquaculture systems (G2) Manoranjan Mondal

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  1. Productive, profitable, and resilient agriculture and aquaculture systems (G2) ManoranjanMondal Collaborative Research Scientist International Rice Research Institute Presented in AAS Hub Scoping at Khulna

  2. Coastal Zone Overview • Coastal is the most impoverish part of the country, with low cropping intensity and low productivity caused food insecurity

  3. Coastal Zone Overview • Main constrain for agricultural production has been defined as • Soil and water salinity • lack of fresh water in dry season

  4. Polder Construction vs Crop Production • To overcome constrains to agriculture, in 1960 – 1970, GoB has built 135polders with main mandate: control salinity intrusion and tidal surge • Thanks to the polders, area and rice production in the coastal zone has increased

  5. Water Management in Polder: Institutional Level • Various institution “manage” different part of the polder • BWDB: construction and maintenance of the embankment and sluices • BADC: small irrigation system within polders • LEGD: outside polders • No one looks at polder is a comprehensive water management unit

  6. Background • Build on the successes of CPWF Phase 1 projects, especially from PN 10 and PN 7, in using short-duration stress-tolerant varieties and on-farm water management for increasing opportunities for cropping intensification. • The new varieties with short duration and enhanced tolerance of abiotic stresses (salinity, submergence) developed by BRRI, BINA, IRRI, CIMMYT, BARI, and ICRISAT provide further opportunities for crop intensification and diversification. • The project will leverage on the BWDB’s work on Integrated Planning for Sustainable Water Management in improving polder infrastructure and management. • Experiences learned from CP10 in stocking of prawn and fish with rice in the rice phase of the shrimp-rice system will contribute to enhancing productivity.

  7. Objectives • Validate new germplasm suitable for various agricultural cropping systems and establish seed distribution networks in target zones • Develop and disseminate more productive, profitable, resilient, and diversified rice-based cropping systems (including rice-aquaculture) • Enhance the productivity of homestead production systems • Develop novel brackish-water aquatic production systems for zones too saline for agricultural crops • Produce technology and policy recommendations for up- and out-scaling

  8. Partners • Lead Institution: IRRI • Bangladesh • BRRI • BFRI • BRAC • WFC • India • CSSRI (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute) • CIBA (Central Institute for Brackish-Water Aquaculture )

  9. Study Sites • Bangladesh • Polder 3 (Kaligonj, Shatkira) • Polder 30 (Batiaghata, Khulna) • Polder 43/2F (Amtali, Barguna) • India • Sandeshkhali, North 24 Parganas District • Kakdwip, South 24 Parganas District

  10. Study Sites in Bangladesh Pol-30 Pol-3 Pol-43/2F Polder 3 :High Salinity Polder 30 : Moderate Salinity Polder 43/2F : Low Salinity

  11. Study Sites • Bangladesh • Polder 3 (Kaligonj, Shatkira): This polder is characterized by high salinity, especially during the dry season. Good potential exists for increasing productivity of the rice-shrimp system and for enhancing aquacultural production in the dry season by introducing modern technology of mixed farming of shrimp, fish, etc. Rice yield during the aman (wet) season could also be increased considerably by replacing the current local varieties with improved salt-tolerant varieties with shorter maturity to escape the periods of higher salinity and increase duration for the shrimp season, as well as the period required for land preparation between seasons.

  12. Study Sites • Bangladesh • Polder 30 (Batiaghata, Khulna): This polder covers about 4,500 ha, mostly affected by medium to high salinity during the dry season and early in the wet season. Cropping intensity is low, about 140%, despite the potential for two to three crops per year. Possibilities also exist for incorporating fish culture with rice during the wet season and cage culture in canals in aman season.

  13. Study Sites • Bangladesh • Polder 43/2/F (Patuakhali, Barisal): This polder has low to medium salinity intrusion and low cropping intensity but potential for a substantial increase, and potential for triple cropping. Rice productivity can also be further increased by replacing the current local varieties with more productive salt-tolerant modern varieties.

  14. Rice-based Cropping Systems

  15. Cropping Systems • Even with polders: Main crop is still single aman rice Traditional Rice Aquaculture Traditional Rice (2-3 t/ha) Aquaculture Traditional Rice Sesame/Mungbean (0.5-1.0 t/ha)

  16. Varietal Testing • Aus : BRRI dhan28 , 47, 48, 53, 55, BINA dhan8, OM1490, Alloran, Mala (local) • Aman: • Polder 3: BR23, BRRI dhan40, 41, 44, 47, 52, 53, 54, BINA dhan8, IR 8465, Local check • Polder 30: BR23, BRRI dhan41, 44, 49, 52, 53, 54, BINA dhan8, Saltol+sub1(1), Saltol+sub1(2), Morichsail (local check) • Polder 43/2F: BRRI dhan 30, 33, 39, 40, 41, 44, 51, 52, 53, 54, BINA dhan8, Shadamota (local check) • Boro: BRRI dhan28, 29, 45, 47, 50, 53, 55, BINA dhan8, BRRI Hybrid dhan2, 3, Alloran

  17. New Cropping Systems Development • With new varieties • Short duration • Non photoperiod sensitive • Salt tolerance • Cropping systems research • On farm water management • On farm storage • Rainfall • It is possible to have 2 or 3 crops per year which can avoid salinity and overcoming the water shortage in the dry season Sesame-Aman-F = 3-4 t/haBoro-F-Aman = 11-13 t/haAus-Aman-Rabi = 12-42 t/ha

  18. Boro (140 d) T. Aus (100d) T. Aman (145d) 05 Dec 25 Dec/10 Jan 20 Dec/05 Jan Barisal Region: Aus-Aman-BoroCropping System 10 Apr 10 Aug 05 Apr 20 Apr 05 Aug 20 July 15 Dec 10 Dec 25 Nov 20 Apr 01 May 15 May 01 May 01 Aug 20 Aug 15 Aug 20 Dec DS. Aus (100d)

  19. T. Aus (100d) T. Aman (145d) Rabi (120 d) 1 Dec 15 Dec 15 Jan 25 Dec Barisal Region: Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System 2 5 Apr 15 May 15 Dec 5 Jan 30 July 20 Aug 15 Nov 15 Nov 30 June 30 June 1 Apr 15 Apr 10 May 30 May 10 Apr 10 Apr 10 July 10 July 10 Aug 30 Aug

  20. T. Aus (110d) T. Aman (145d) Rabi (120 d) 5 Jan 25 Dec 5 Dec 15 Dec Khulna Region: Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System 5 May 20 Aug 20 July 30 July 10 Auf 25 Nov 5 Dec 25 Dec 15 Dec 2 5 Apr 5 Apr 15 Apr 20 May 10 May 1 May 20 Apr 30 Aug 10 Aug 20 Aug 01 Aug

  21. New Cropping Systems 25 Nov 5 Apr 20 July T. Aman (130-140 d) Aus (100-105 d) Boro (140-145 d) 1 May 5 Dec 1 Aug River water EC 1-5 dSm-1 Rainfall ~1500 mm leaching down soil salinity River water EC 1-5 dSm-1 Aus-Aman-Boro Cropping System

  22. Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec New Cropping System 30 June 15 Nov 1 5Apr 10 Apr 10 July Rainfall ~1500 mm leaching down soil salinity River water EC 1-5 dSm-1 River water EC 1-5 dSm-1 Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System

  23. Constrains to New Cropping Systems Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) Rabi (130-140 d) Deep flooding at the beginning of rainy season constrains the establishment of aman rice and adoption of modern high yielding varieties Prolonged water log at the end of rainy season delay establishment of rabi crop

  24. How to Adopt New Cropping Systems? • To realize the new cropping system, it is crucial to improve the drainage of the polders • Can drainage be improved? Yes Embankment High Tide 1-2 m Sluice gate Land Surface Land 2-3 m Low Tide River Bed

  25. Re-assess the Role of Polders in New Cropping Systems • Previous role: salinity and tidal surge prevention • Now with new cropping systems, the polders have additional roles • Water supply and storage • Drainage • New function: polder has to be treated as one “water management unit”

  26. Aquaculture-based Cropping Systems

  27. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Aquaculture-Rice System

  28. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Aquaculture-Rice System For rice: Water will be drained out in June/July and land will be exposed to rain to wash-out deposited salt. Tilapia will take shelter in refugee pond during June/July. Rice will be transplanted in early August (30 d seedlings), basal fertilizers (P, K, S, Zn) will be applied 1 d before TP and for N, USG will be applied 10 d after TP. Water depth will be increased synchronizing with plant height. Rice plant may take advantage of N application for fish (golda).

  29. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Aquaculture-Rice System

  30. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Year-round Aquaculture

  31. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Year-round Aquaculture

  32. Productive, Profitable, and Resilient Agriculture and Aquaculture Systems (G2) Year-round Aquaculture

  33. Aquaculture Activities at a Glance

  34. Homestead Production Systems

  35. Background • Intended to focus on homesteads, as opposed to the off-household “gher” aquatic agricultural farming systems research. • Included analysis of vegetable, fish, livestock integration in homestead lands and ponds of households in coastal areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. • Research will pay special attention to the role of female farmers and impact of increase in salinity on homestead production (vegetables, fruit, livestock in addition to aquaculture).

  36. Background • Research will be preceded by a baseline survey and literature review. • Purpose of survey is to benchmark understanding on how people use the resources, identifying options for improving homestead economy, resilience, nutrition and health. • Purpose of the review is to evaluate input efficiencies, productivity and nutritional value of different models of integrated homestead farming in selected villages, representing different salinity and flooding risk. • Gender analysis should have been an integral part of the review.

  37. Progress • A survey of >1200 randomly selected HHs was conducted across 3 polders (polder: 3, 30, 43/2F) in SW Bangladesh during January-May. • Homestead size: average 20% of total land. • Landless (< 0.19 ha): 54 % HHs, followed by 26% with 0.2-0.6 ha. • Household income sources are different across land size classes • Labour for landless group, agriculture for the HHs with land >0.2ha • 51% HHs have ponds with av area of 13 decimals (525 m2). • We are exploring the influence of pond on household characteristics, but income seems to be positively associated with presence of a pond.

  38. Moving Forward • Research approach during 2012 which could combine analysis of household survey data, ongoing FtF and CSISA • Research question: • What are indicators of “improved” homestead systems? • These should reflect dimensions of homestead production systems, including productivity, resilience, nutritional values, income, land size, seasonality. For ponds, we may explore size, production, productivity, no. of harvests etc. • How indicators for an improved homestead system are associated with relevant human development parameters? • Such as household size, education, children under 5, women-headed households etc.

  39. Moving Forward • What are the benefits households, women and children might get by moving from a non-improved to an “improved” garden and pond? • What are the best bets for household “improvements”? This analysis might also have to look at conditions related to influence of salinity? It could also explore possible synergies/conflicts/trade offs between homestead and ghers investments. • What are the blocks households face in achieving these improvements and how might these be overcome? • What is the role of AAS capacity building in addressing these blocks? This would provide insights that might contribute to scale-ability, and actions to address blocks/opportunities.

  40. Improved water management

  41. Existing Crop and Water Management Scenario Rabi (130-140 d) T. Aman(140-160 d) Deep flooding at the beginning of rainy season constrains the establishment of aman rice and adoption of modern HYV rice Prolonged water log at the end of rainy season delay establishment of rabi crop

  42. Key Issues in Achieving Food Security • Key to increasing food production and improving rural livelihoods in the coastal region of Bangladesh is improved water management, • Improved drainage to reduce the depth of inundation during the rainy season • Drain-out water from rice fields rapidly at the end of the rainy season to allow timely establishment of rabi crops • Maximize use of available freshwater for crop production in the dry season.

  43. Can Drainage be Improved? Embankment High Tide 1-2 m Sluice gate Land Surface Land 2-3 m Low Tide River Bed

  44. Objective • Overall objective of this study is to work in a pilot “watershed” area to demonstrate the benefits of improved water management at the community level • to adopt improved crop and crop management practices • for safe harvest of the dry season crops to achieve higher land and water productivity.

  45. Study Site: KismatFultola, Polder 30, Khulna River Mini-watershed Sluice gate

  46. Methodology • Study will be conducted at the community level in polder 30 involving • Land owners (47 farmers) and tenants in watershed area • Local water users association and • Public representatives • Demonstrate the procedures of rainfall, river water and sluice gate management necessary for adoption of high yielding rice varieties and associated fertilizer management techniques • to get higher productivity in the wet season • to demonstrate early establishment of non-rice crops for safe harvest of the crops and consequently higher production and income

  47. Methodology • Prior to rainy season, drainage networks and drainage outlet will be established to facilitate HYV rice cultivation for higher productivity in the aman/rainy season 2012. • Provide good quality HYV rice seeds and training to adopt similar cropping calendar to facilitate N topdressing . • Drainage system will be managed to maintain a water depth of about 20 cm, above which water will be drained out. Terminal drainage 2-3 weeks before rice harvest to facilitate early establishment of rabi crops. • Neighboring farmers (male and female), member of WUA, local leaders and journalists will be invited to provide insight on improved water management and cropping plan. • Monitoring of cultural practices for aman and rabi crops in and outside of the watershed area to compare with the farmers’ previous practices

  48. Aman (140 d) Rabi (120-140 d) 01 Dec-01 Jan Improved Cropping System Irrigation TD Drainage 15 Nov Mar-Apr 15 July Terminal Drainage Rainfall ~1500+ mm leaching down soil salinity Residual soil water River water EC 1-5 dSm-1 Yd (FP)= 2.5 + 0.5 t/ha Yd (IP) = 4.5 + 1.0 t/ha Aman-Rabi Cropping System

  49. Conclusion • With advances in germplasm/species, on-farm water management, it is possible to have 2-3 crops (ag+aq)/year despite of salinity and water shortage in DS • Water management is the key, especially we have to improve drainage • Polders have been built 40 years ago, with the new farming systems • polders have new roles ….. new roles need new management, new institution set up ……for food security and increased income

  50. Thank You