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Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology. Module 7 The Urinary System. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System. Principle Functions: Remove waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine Regulate the body’s tissue fluid

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Health sciences 1101 medical terminology

Health Sciences 1101Medical Terminology

Module 7

The Urinary System

Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system
Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System

Principle Functions:

  • Remove waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine

  • Regulate the body’s tissue fluid

  • Maintain a balance of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium)

  • Maintain an acid-base balance in the blood

General urinary system terms
General Urinary System Terms

Nephr/o or Ren/o: Pertaining to the kidney

Ur/o or urin/o: Pertaining to urine or the urinary tract

Urology: Study of the urinary system

Urologist: Expert in the study of the urinary system as well as some reproductive issues

Nephrology: Study of the kidneys

Nephrologist: Expert in the study of the kidneys and kidney disease.

Urinary system anatomy terms
Urinary System Anatomy Terms

Cyst/o or vesic/o: Bladder

Glomerul/o: Glomerulus

Pyel/o: Renal Pelvis

Ureter/o: Ureter

Urethr/o: Urethra

Aden/o: gland

Other important urinary system terms
Other Important Urinary System Terms

Meat/o: opening or tunnel through a body part

-uria: In the urine or pertaining to the urine

-ptsosis: prolapse, or downward placement of

-pexy: To fix in place, fixation

Lith or calculus: stone

Diurese: Increase the rate of urination

Supra: Above

Other important urinary system terms1
Other Important Urinary System Terms

Olig/o: Decreased or diminished

Poly: Increased or multiple

Micturition: Urination, or voiding urine

Malignant: cancerous

Benign: Non-cancerous

Inflammation: pathologic response that includes, pain, heat, swelling and redness.

Retro-: to go back, backward

Urinary system pathology
Urinary System Pathology

Infections and inflammation of the various parts of the urinary tract. (remember the terms –itis, -cele, -pathy, -oma, algia, etc.)

Upper urinary tract: Kidneys and ureters

Lower urinary tract: Bladder and urethra

Incontinence: Uncontrolled loss of urine from the bladder

Enuresis: Sometimes called bedwetting. Inability to control urination after the age where such control is usually gained.

Nocturia: Excessive voiding or urine at night

Urinary system pathology1
Urinary System Pathology

Hypospadias: An abnormal opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis. Typically congenital.

Azoturia: An abnormal increase in nitrogenous compounds in the urine.

Uremia: Elevated level of urea or other protein waste products in the blood.

Wilms tumor: Rapidly developing tumor most often seen in children.

Urinary system pathology2
Urinary System Pathology

Interstitial nephritis: inflammation and/or damage to the tubules due to a toxic agent or lack of blood flow

Glomerulonephritis: Disruption of normal glomerular filtration. Often a hypersensitive reaction.

Renal failure: The kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood.

Acute renal failure: Can result from lack of blood flow to the kidneys

Renal hypertension: High blood pressure that results from kidney disease

Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis and Treatment

Urinalysis (UA): Physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine.

Blood Urea Nitrogen: Laboratory test that measures the amount of urea excreted by the kidneys into the blood

Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB): Radiographic technique used to determine the location, size, shape and any malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

Intravenous pyelogram: Radiographic procedure in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serialx-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract.

Diagnosis and treatment1
Diagnosis and Treatment

Renal scan: Technique that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney.

Voiding cystourography: Radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after the introduction of a contrast medium.

Retrograde pyelography: Radiographic procedure in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directlyinto the bladder and ureters, using small-caliber catheters.

Diagnosis and treatment2
Diagnosis and Treatment

Catheterization: Insertion of a hollow flexible tube into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid.

Dialysis: The patient’s blood is cleansed by circulation through a dialysis machine which acts as an artificial kidney

Renal transplant: Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.