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What is RFID?. RFID is a technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item. What is RFID.

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what is rfid
What is RFID?
  • RFID is a technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track...
  • RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item

Muhammad Wasim Raad

what is rfid1
What is RFID
  • Tag enters RF field
  • RF signal powers tag
  • Tag transmits ID, plus data
  • Reader captures data
  • Reader sends data to computer
  • Computer determines action
  • Computer instructs reader
  • Reader transmits data to tag

Radio Frequency Identification

Label

(Transponder)

Reader/Antenna

(Interrogator)

Computer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid primer
RFID Primer
  • RFID Diagram:

Antenna

RF Module

Reader

Host Computer

Note: The host is the software database...

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid primer1
RFID Primer

Antenna

RFModule

Reader

Host Computer

Note: The RF module createsradio frequency (RF). It receives and transmits RF through the antenna…

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid primer2
RFID Primer

Antenna

RFModule

Reader

Host Computer

Note: The RF module createsradio frequency (RF). It receives and transmits RF through the antenna…

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid primer3
RFID Primer

Antenna

RF Module

Tag

Reader

Host Computer

Note: Tag (transponder) is interrogated by the antenna....

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid primer4
RFID Primer

(Tag ID Communication)

Antenna

RF Module

Tag

Reader

Host Computer

Note: The antenna captures the tag ID number…first as analog RF waves, then it is converted to digital information.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

an rfid tag is a portable database
CPU

I/O

RAM

ROM

Radio Tx/Rx

Pwr Supply

CPU

I/O

RAM

ROM

Radio Tx/Rx

Pwr Supply

An RFID Tag Is A Portable Database

…A sophisticated computing and communications device

…A wireless extension of Information Systems

Interrogation Unit

Tag

Micro

Antenna

Tx/Rx

Computer

Computer Network

Muhammad Wasim Raad

why use rfid
Why use RFID ?
  • To determine authentication of a package
  • To provide automated traceability of an item

Muhammad Wasim Raad

motivation of using rfid
Motivation of using RFID
  • Generate Revenue
  • Reduce operating costs

Muhammad Wasim Raad

what is rfid the tags
What is RFID? -- The Tags
  • Tags can be read-only or read-write
  • Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and optionally permanently locked
  • Bytes left unlocked can be rewritten over more than 100,000 times

Muhammad Wasim Raad

what is rfid the tags1
What is RFID? -- The Tags
  • Tags can be attached to almost anything:
    • pallets or cases of product
    • vehicles
    • company assets or personnel
    • items such as apparel, luggage, laundry
    • people, livestock, or pets
    • high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders

Muhammad Wasim Raad

are all tags the same
Are All Tags The Same?

Basic Types:

  • Active
    • Tag transmits radio signal
    • Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry
    • High Read Range (300 feet)
  • Passive
    • Tag reflects radio signal from reader
    • Reader powered
    • Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

are all tags the same1
Are All Tags The Same?
  • Variations:
    • Memory
      • Size (16 bits - 512KBytes +)
      • Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM
      • Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam
    • Arbitration (Anti-collision)
      • Ability to read/write one or many tags at a time
    • Frequency
      • 125KHz - 5.8 GHz
    • Physical Dimensions
      • Thumbnail to Brick sizes
    • Price ($0.50 to $250)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

types of tags memory segmentation
Types of Tags - Memory Segmentation
  • Read Only (Factory Programmed)
  • WORM - Write Once, Read Many times
  • Reprogrammable (Field Programmable)
  • Read/Write (In-Use Programmable)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

what is rfid the readers
What is RFID? -- The Readers
  • Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as
    • Entrance/exit
    • Point of sale
    • Warehouse
  • Readers can also be mobile -- tethered, hand-held, or wireless

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide19
<150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )

Advantages

  • Uses normal CMOS processing —basic and ubiquitous
  • Relative freedom from regulatory limitations
  • Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data at slow speeds and minimal distances
  • Penetrates materials well (water, tissue, wood, aluminum)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide20
<150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )

Disadvantages:

  • Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (iron, steel)
  • Handles only small amounts of data
  • Slow read speeds
  • Large Antennas -- compared to higher frequencies
  • Minimal Range

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide21
<150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )

Disadvantages:

  • Tag construction:
    • is thicker (than 13.56 MHz)
    • is more expensive (than 13.56 MHz)
    • more complex (requires more turns of the induction coil)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

13 56 mhz
13.56 MHz

Advantages

  • Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous
  • Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data and minimal distances
  • Penetrates water/tissue well
  • Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the coil); lower costs to build
  • Higher data rate (than 125 kHz--but slower than higher MHz systems)
  • Thinner tag construction (than 125 kHz)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

13 56 mhz1
13.56 MHz

Disadvantages

  • Government regulated frequency (U.S. versus Europe)
  • Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (unless very thick)
  • Large Antennas (compared to higher frequencies)
  • Larger tag size than higher frequencies
  • Tag construction: requires more than one surface to complete a circuit
  • Minimal Range

Muhammad Wasim Raad

bar codes vs rfid
Bar Codes vs. RFID

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid applications
RFID Applications
  • Petrol Service Stations
    • In Singapore, the Mobil petrol service stations has already introduced RFID technology to implement their Speed Pass system to enable drivers to fill up the petrol and drive away. All information will be gathered automatically through RFID smart tags and customers’ bills can be settled through the net.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

rfid application in a factory canteen
RFID Application in a Factory Canteen
  • it is very interesting to notice that in the factory canteen’s environment, RFID tags are attached at the bottom of the plates to identify the cooked food and its price.
  • The staff of the factory need only to pick up the food on the tray and place the tray on top of a RFID reader.
  • The RFID reader will identify the products and its price. The staff need only to place the cash card to pay for the food.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

smart appliances using rfid
Smart Appliances using RFID

Muhammad Wasim Raad

advantage
Advantage

Cooking a pizza

Forget about your pizza

{Not Expired, Expired}

Expiration

Cannotcook

Can cook

{Healthy, Unhealthy}

RFiD

Diet

Muhammad Wasim Raad

privacy
Privacy
  • Privacy bit on tag
  • Tags belong to consumers
  • If privacy bit=1 it will be invisible to readers
  • Readers watch on each other: private tag command
  • What is blocker tag?

Muhammad Wasim Raad

the privacy bit
The privacy bit
  • Blocker tag command can prevent privacy violations before they occur
  • A blocker effectively jams readers that emit private-read commands
  • When it detects it, it simulates all possible RFID tags in the world rendering reader incapable

Muhammad Wasim Raad

market trend
Market Trend

Muhammad Wasim Raad

inside a smart card
Inside a Smart Card
  • Based on ISO 7816 standards

-Define Card Size, Contact and internal code used

  • Non volatile memory: EEPROM
  • IN/Out: 9600 bits/second

Muhammad Wasim Raad

smart card classification
Smart Card classification
  • Memory only Card( Contact or Contactless)
  • Contact CPU Card
  • Contactless CPU Card

Muhammad Wasim Raad

how many kinds of smart cards exist
How many kinds of smart cards exist?
  • -Contact smart card inserted into card reader

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide42
- Contactless Smart cards: should be passed near an antenna to carry out transaction

Muhammad Wasim Raad

how can the smart card help in new channels
To Managing Finances Securely and Conveniently

Entertainment on Demand

Earning and redeeming rewards with Virtual Merchants

To store personal data for covenience on-line

Virtual Health, Govt or other Services

To Secure Virtual World Shopping with Credit (Chip SecureCode) or e-Cash

How can the SMART card help in new channels?

Muhammad Wasim Raad

proprietary smart card operating systems
Native

EMV

Code

Native

Loyalty

Code

Native

EMV

Code

Native

EMV

Code

Native

Loyalty

Code

Proprietary OS A

Proprietary OS B

Proprietary Smart Card Operating Systems
  • Proprietary Chip OS developed in “native” code - specific to underlying silicon - to access chip functions. OS often dedicated to performing a single specific function – e.g. EMV

Data

Data

Data

Data

E2

E2

ROM

ROM

  • OS code is fixed in the ROM of the chip, and cannot be changed after the chip is made.

Chip Hardware A

Chip Hardware B

  • Limited number of programmers able to make adaptations to proprietary OS – impact on time to market if changes / new functions required.
  • In order to multi-source silicon, native code must be redeveloped from scratch for new chip.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

Chip Hardware A

Chip Hardware B

multos
MULTOS
  • The only OS obtaining ITSEC(E6)

Very secure

  • Multi-application support
  • Requires Coprocessor for RSA makes it expensive

Muhammad Wasim Raad

multos the open standard smart card operating system
MULTOS: The OPEN STANDARD smart card operating system
  • MULTOS defines a standard CHIP HARDWARE INDEPENDENT Smart CardOperating System:
  • Portable:
    • Develop applications ONCE and run on ANY MULTOS chip.
  • Open:
    • Develop in C or Java and Compile. API FREELY available.

MEL Editor

C Compiler

Java Compiler

/ Translator

EMV

EMV

  • Highest Hardware and OS Security Assurance:
    • ITSEC E6 High evaluated
  • MULTOS SCHEME facilitates management of multiple applications
    • Advanced Asymmetric Cryptographic mechanism

PKI

Application

A

PKI

Application

A

E2PROM

E2PROM

MULTOS API

MULTOS API

MULTOS VM

MULTOS VM

ROM

ROM

Infineon Silicon

Renesas Silicon

Muhammad Wasim Raad

hid mifare card
HID MIFARE Card
  • 13.56 MHz contactless card
  • used for public transportation, access control,road toll, park & ride, airline ticketing, customer loyalty and ID card

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide49
Mifare features

Reader

Card

Unique Chip Serial Number

13.56 MHz Transmission

ISO 14443

8Kbit EEPROM

16 independent sectors

Anticollision

Cryptography

Key Storage WOM

Protection by cryptographic algorithm

Muhammad Wasim Raad

main applications
Main applications
  • Access Control
  • Vehicle identification
  • Electronic driver license
  • Ski Passes
  • Airline tickets
  • Transportation: buses, taxis & underground
  • Baggage Identification

Muhammad Wasim Raad

contactless card reader
Contactless card reader
  • Read/Write to contactless memory cards
  • Utilizes Mifare technology
  • Used in Access control to buildings

Muhammad Wasim Raad

proximity solutions for multos
Proximity Solutions for MULTOS
  • 2 types of MULTOS “Dual-Interface” cards – supporting communication with the chip via both the contact plate and the contactless interface based on Proximity Standard - ISO 14443
  • Hitachi/DNP Contactless MULTOS: 36K EEPROM, Type B contactless interface, Available now
    • Supports both versions of Paypass transaction (contactless M/Chip 4, or Contactless Track 2 data) and in fact can execute ANY existing MULTOS application over the contactless interface.
  • Keycorp / Philips Contactless MULTOS, 16K EEPROM, MIFARE Type A contactless interface, Prototypes available now
    • Supports Mifare ticketing only. Full contactless MULTOS application execution planned for Q3 2004

250K issued for Japan Residential ID card

Muhammad Wasim Raad

slide56
Cost
  • RFID readers: 1000$
  • Tags: > 20 cents.
  • Active tags: 1$-5$
  • Tags will become cost effective when production inlay very high
  • Only handful of quality suppliers

Muhammad Wasim Raad

cost continue
Cost continue
  • Production methods and materials used to build RFID inlays being defined
  • Tag antennas metallic, very expensive and large size
  • Chip less Tags much cheaper: .1-10 cents

Muhammad Wasim Raad

future of rfid tags
Future of RFID Tags
  • Low cost active tags for locating & tracking objects with limited no of readers
  • Higher frequencies: Tags developed at Siemens lab: 2.5-24 Ghz, have batteries and range extend to several kilometers

Muhammad Wasim Raad

future continue
Future continue
  • Recently, Ultra WIDE BAND (ubw) can locate objects in 2 & 3 dimensions within few inches
  • Marketed for asset tracking in hospitals
  • The size of wristwatch, 40 grams
  • Indoor range: 300 feet

Muhammad Wasim Raad

future science fiction
Future: Science Fiction
  • Transparent packages will light up in moving color advertisement
  • Disposable smart labels will detect viruses and specific chemicals

Muhammad Wasim Raad

references
References
  • www.rfidjournal.com
  • RFID book by Steven Shepard, McGraw-Hill 2005-ISBN-0-07-144299-5
  • www.gs1uk.org
  • RFID Field Guide Deploying Radio Frequency Identification systems By Manish Bhuptani-ISBN-0-13-185355-4

Muhammad Wasim Raad

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