bilamana audit manajemen dibutuhkan pertemuan 3 s d 4 n.
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Bilamana Audit Manajemen dibutuhkan Pertemuan 3 s.d 4

Bilamana Audit Manajemen dibutuhkan Pertemuan 3 s.d 4

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Bilamana Audit Manajemen dibutuhkan Pertemuan 3 s.d 4

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  1. Bilamana Audit Manajemen dibutuhkanPertemuan 3 s.d 4 Matakuliah : A0134/Audit Operasional Tahun : 2006

  2. What is Management Audit • Management Audit is a relatively new consulting technique. It is provided as an independent service by experienced consultants. • The rate and rapidity of change will vary from industry to industry. It also varies within each industry. A service industry will be able to adapt very much more rapidly than, say, a capital-intensive industry. • Senior company managements have commissioned Management Audits in a wide variety of circumstances in a variety of commercial, financial and industrial sectors.

  3. Acquisition, Merger or Joint Venture • When the management of a company evaluates a prospective merger, acquisition or joint venture candidate, it spends substantial resources on the analysis of potential partners. It looks in depth at their competitive market position, physical assets, financial results, product positioning and other objective analyses. • The success of the acquisition, merger or joint venture, ultimately depends upon the ability to motivate and retain those executives filling key roles.

  4. Reorganisations • A reorganisation arises for a variety of reasons. A management team might be weakened by the departure of a key executive. Ownership of the company might have changed, or the existing management might realise the need for restructuring following a change in strategy. • Sometimes a product becomes a liability.

  5. Flotation or Public Offerings • The United States of America and Europe have witnessed rapid business expansion and merger activity in the past decade. There has also been an substantial increase in the number of companies initiating new public offerings in the world’s financial markets.

  6. Turnaround Situations • All turnaround situations share the need to reduce rapidly the company’s cost structure and fundamentally improve its organisation. • Turnaround managers have very strong operational characteristics; most would benefit from complementary organisational diagnostic skills such as those provided in a Management Audit. The turnaround manager has to choose who to keep and who to let go. • A director of a leading City bank, who attended a Management Audit presentation late in 991, volunteered the information that had he known of the Management Audit concept some months earlier he would have commissioned one before calling in loans on a particular company. Several hundred people lost their jobs following the closure of that particular enterprise when the loans were called in. He felt that an in-depth management restructuring might have given sufficient confidence for the company to have reorganised successfully.

  7. Legislative Changes • Deregulation • Privatisation • Removal of Trade Barriers

  8. Market Fluctuations • Business and Economic Cycles • Technological Innovation • A Change in Strategy

  9. Business and Economic Cycles • Faced with economic upturns or downturns, an average company’s management cannot always adapt rapidly enough to counter the changing economic conditions. • It is unrealistic to assume that any given executive will possess such a breadth of experience and talent that he can adapt without assistance from a boom to a downturn. Different skills are required and if these cannot be obtained by training, then different individuals will be required. However, before the corporation looks outside, it is in its own interests to evaluate its internal talent: people can evaluate, adapt and learn.

  10. A fluctuation in business can be, and often is, very sudden, and the ability to react appropriately is vital for the continuing success of the organisation. There are, broadly, two ways of reacting, namely: • Changing the management by obtaining new executives from outside the organisation, or • Changing the organisation to support a specific area that is, or might be, under threat.

  11. Similar problems arise when an industry faces substantial fluctuations in the price of raw materials.

  12. Technological Innovation • A parallel situation occurs when technological innovation revolutionises the market place.

  13. A Change in Strategy • So how does management plan for such fluctuations? An ideal solution for a new company is a light overhead structure; it is not always possible to staff to meet the worst possible fluctuations. Contracting out certain functions or contracting in temporary management may be very effective. A mature company faces a different problem.

  14. Human Resources Problems • All the above situations create human resource problems. Management Audit is not only appropriate when external pressures make a review necessary: it can also be a natural result of positive developments within the company. Succession planning, for example, is often made easier by the use of outside assessors.

  15. Succession Planning • Exceptional Needs • Identifying New Talents • Overseas Subsidiaries • Communication

  16. PENGERTIAN AUDIT MANAJEMEN (MANAGEMENT AUDIT) • BEBERAPA ISTILAH DARI PARA AHLI: • Operational Audit • Management Audit • Performance Audit • Value for money Audit (audit untuk menilai penggunaan uang)

  17. PERKEMBAGAN ISTILAH AUDIT MANAJEMEN • 1977: Rittenberg & Schwieger dalam buku Auditin Concepts for Changing Environment Management istilah Operation Audit (Audit Operasional) • 1979: Leo Herbert PhD CPA, dalam “Auditing the Performance of Management” menegaskan istilah audit operasional menjadi “Management Audit”. Leo Herbert kemudian berwacana, Operasional Audit dipecah menjadi Mgm Audit & Program Audit yg keduanya digabungkan menjadi “Performance Audit” (Audit Kinerja)

  18. 1987: Parker L.D menyatakan istilah –istilah tersebut mempunyai persamaan • 1990: Thierauf : Management Audit

  19. Audit Operasional • Audit yang sistematis baik terhadap kegiatan. Program maupun fungsi suatu organisasi dengan tujuan untuk memulai dan melaporkan apakah sumber daya dan dana digunakan secara lebih ekonomis dan efisien, dan apakah tujuan kegiatan, program dan fungsi yang telah direncanakan dapat dicapai dengan tidak bertentangan dengan peraturan per-undang-undangan yang berlaku.

  20. Audit Manajemen(Management Audit) • Penilaian terhadap keberhasilan manajemen dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi, fungsi manajemen & kecukupan (kehandalan) keputusan manajemen pada kegiatan yang diarahkan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan (Thieraauf 1990) • Merupakan suatu jenis audit kinerja untuk menggantikan atau menilai apakah manajemen telah menjalankan operasional organisasi-nya dengan ekonomis & efisien (Leo Herbert-1979)

  21. Defenisi Audit Manajemen ( Hans Kartikahandi /1989): Sebagai evaluasi secara independen & berorientasi ke masa depan atas berbagai kegiatan operasional suatu organisasi guna membantu manajemen dalam meningkatkan efektifitas pencapaian hasil/tujuan yang ditetapkan & meningkatkan kehematan (economy) & efisiensi dalam penggunaan sumber daya (resources) oleh entitas-entitas ekonomi dilingkungan organisasi

  22. Fungsi Audit Manajemen: • Membantu meyakinkan terdapatnya akuntabilitas • Mengidentifikasikan cara-cara memperbaiki kegiatan / operasi

  23. Audit Kinerja (Performance Audit) • Audit yang meliputi penentuan sasaran (audit objective) oleh auditor independen mengenai ekonomis, efisiensi & efektifitas dari kinerja manajemen, perolehan bukti sehubungan dengan tujuan audit tersebut, penganalisaan bukti untuk mendapatkan suatu simpulan mengenai apakah manajemen sudah menjalankan kegiatan atau programnya dengan ekonomis efisien serta melaporkan hasil audit tersebut kepada pihak yang berkepentingan.

  24. AUDIT ATAS NILAI PENGGUNAAN UANG (Value for Money Audit) • Digunakan di Inggris • Audit yang diarahkan untuk menilai efisiensi, kehematan ekonomis dan efektifitas penggunaan sumber dana oleh suatu unit kerja/program

  25. HAKEKAT AUDIT MANAJEMEN AUDITOR Akuntabilitas Kinerja/Kegiatan Kriteria BUKTI ? 3 E & Taat Aturan Laporan Ke Manajemen dgn Rekomendasi Tindak Lanjut Perbaikan