Good Morning. Please take out your notes from last night. 1. What form of government did you form to maintain order in the Island experiment?. 2. Why would Greece’s geography lead to the creation of city-state controlled government?.
Please take out your notes from last night.
Greece is made up of islands and mountains. It is difficult to travel around the country of Greece.
The Individual city-state made their own government to establish laws for their citizens.
Not all city states had the same laws.
A monarchy is rule by one individual, usually a king or queen.
An aristocracy is a government ruled by a small group of noble, land owning families.
Trade expanded and wealthy merchants wanted to share or take power from the nobility.
A few powerful people, non-nobles control the government.
Democracy means rule of the people. It comes from the Greek words demos meaning “people” and kratos meaning “power”
Citizens were adult male residents who enjoyed certain rights and responsibilities.
An assembly of citizens elected three nobles to rule the city state.
After a year of service the nobles became part of a larger council of advisors.
Can make the rules.
Influence where tax revenues are spent.
Can push a specific agenda to be addressed by the legislature.
Have your opinion heard.
The farmers pledged part of the crops to wealthy landowners.
They later pledged their lands.
Finally they sold themselves into slavery and were unable to leave the land.
Solon passed a law outlawing slavery based on debt and cancelled farmers’ debts.
Solon based his four class system on wealth rather than heredity.
The citizens of the three upper classes could hold public office.
Even the lowest class had the right to vote.
All free adult males were citizens.
Council of 400 was established.
Any citizen could bring charges against wrong doers.
Only citizens could participate in government and only one-tenth of the population were citizens at the time.
Women, slaves and foreign residents were denied citizenship.
Cleisthenes made more reforms to allow for more participation in government.
He reorganized the assembly to balance the power between the power of the rich and poor.
He allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage
The Council proposed laws and counseled the assembly.
Members were chosen at random
It allowed Athenian citizens to participate in a limited democracy.
The Greek city states had to work together to defeat the Persian forces.
In Athens public debates were held to discuss how to defend the city.
Pericles strengthened Greek democracy by increasing the number of paid public officials and by paying jurors.
This enabled poorer citizens to participate in the government.
A direct democracy is a form of government in which citizens rule and make laws directly rather than through representatives.
Democracy came to and end when Athens and Sparta went to war.
The weakened city-states were conquered by neighboring Macedonia.
The universe is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws.
People can understand these laws through logic and reason.
They occur in nature and apply to everyone.
Socrates encouraged his students to challenge their most closely held beliefs.
Plato’s vision of a perfect society is lead by Philosopher Kings.
Not the richest or most powerful, but the wisest.
Aristotle’s view is that man is by nature a political animal, and it is in mans nature to live in a state.
To live with rules and know that the laws will be enforced to maintain safety and order in society.
Political Power exercised by citizens.
Three branches of government.
Legislative branch passes laws.
Executive branch carries out the laws.
Judicial Branch conducts trials with paid jurors.