Symbols and Signs. Understanding Political Ideologies. Why Study and Compare Ideologies?. Help us understand: Beliefs and Values that shape our world Why we think the way we think Why others think the way they think To learn tolerance. Ideology Decides. Timothy McVeigh Mass Murderer?
Understanding Political Ideologies
Statue of Liberty,
the scales of justice,
baseball, the Stars and Stripes, the bible,
terrorist and terrorism,
postmodernismExamples of Symbols
Workers are taught to think by capitalists.Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Used “myth” as ideology. society.
Mass movement develops a vision of the future which might be utopian but motivates peopleGeorges Sorel (1847-1922)
Belief systems are illusions based on the repression of our psychological needs.
Ideologies keep us deluded, but they also keep us oriented.Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Ruling class dominates means of socialization (education, religion, media, family).
It rules, not by force, but by “consent.”
Result: HegemonyAntonio Gramsci (1891-1937)
Particular: My view is correct, yours is wrong religion, media, family).
Total: “group think”; belief held in common; “socialism is bad”; Don’t trust anyone over 30.Karl Mannheim (1893-1947)
Symbols derive from culture, they create a matrix that provides orientation for individualsClifford Geertz (1926-)
“Equality”: everyone is equal but some are more equal than others.
Through ideologies we come to know the “right” meaning of justice, liberty, equality.Michael Freeden (1944-)
No social conflict
Cooperation and compromise1950s & 1960s
Communism Loses world.
No more ideology…?December 31, 1991The Soviet Union officially becomes the Russian Federation with Boris Yeltsin as President.
The Battle for Seattle
Human Nature world.
Origin of society and government or state
Freedom and Liberty
The end of society or government
Structural characteristics of government11 Core Issues: study pp. 15-16