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Climate. Other factors effecting climate. Sun’s output Earth’s orbit Drifting continents Volcanic eruptions Greenhouse gases. Factors affecting climate. Relief and Elevation. What does relief mean? Differences in elevation of earth’s surface

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other factors effecting climate
Other factors effecting climate
  • Sun’s output
  • Earth’s orbit
  • Drifting continents
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Greenhouse gases
relief and elevation
Relief and Elevation
  • What does relief mean?
    • Differences in elevation of earth’s surface
  • What affect would mountains have on air masses?
    • Act as barriers
  • If you climbed a very high mountain, what would happen to the temperature?
    • Drops significantly! Maybe see ice, snow
continental and maritime environments
Continental and Maritime Environments
  • Continental Climate
    • Interior of land masses
  • No large body of water to regulate hot or cold temperatures.
continental and maritime environments1
Continental and Maritime Environments
  • Maritime Environments
    • Coastal locations
  • Temperature ranges between highest average monthly and lowest average monthly is low
  • Lots of rain 
so what effect do waters have
So what effect do waters have?
  • Moderating effect: large bodies of water have an effect on the climate of nearby land areas.
  • What effect?
    • Winter temperatures are warmer and summer temperatures are cooler .
    • Why?
    • Winds blowing from the water keep surrounding areas warmer
  • So Maritime temperatures are?
ocean currents
Ocean currents
  • Climate is affected by ocean currents
  • How?
    • The temperature of an ocean current affects the temperature of the air that passes over it.
  • Temperature of the ocean current in comparison with surrounding water determines whether is it a cold or warm current.
  • You try: If an ocean current is 15º but surrounding water is 13º, is it warm or cold?
  • What the surrounding water was 18º?
ocean curents
Ocean curents
  • How is fog produced?
    • Cold air meeting warm air above ocean currents
air masses
Air Masses
  • What is it?
    • A large volume of air with the climate conditions of the area where it was formed. (so it absorbed those conditions)
wind and pressure
Wind and pressure
  • What is air pressure?
    • The weight of the air
  • Differences in air pressure are created when?
    • The earth is heated to different temperatures
  • See diagram!
winds and pressure
Winds and pressure
  • What is wind?
    • Air moving from high pressure to low pressure
  • Prevailing winds : most commonly found in an area.

Ex) Canada’s prevailing winds are called the Westerlies because they blow from west to east!

slide15
?

So wait, let me get this straight Ms Smiley…

If cold air from a dry Arctic air mass passes over the inland, it becomes warmer and contains more moisture. So it rains?

NO! Though it will become warmer, the air is still colder than the climate in the region into which it moves.

winds and pressure1
Winds and pressure
  • What is the boundary between a cold, dry polar air and warm, moist tropical air?
    • Polar front!
jet streams
Jet streams

Jet stream: a current of fast-moving air that is very high in the atmosphere, above the polar front.

Flows from west to east, speeds of 300- 500 km/h

In winter it flows southward (snow in the U.S.A.)

In summer it flows northward (warm in Canada)

What happens when they mix?

STORM!!!

slide18

Pg 139 Fig 12-17

Fill in the temperature and sky cover sections

slide19

Homework:

    • Pg 139, #3,4,5,6
precipitation1
Precipitation
  • 2 guiding principles:
    • Air cools as it _________?
      • Rises
    • As air cools, water vapour condenses more than it evaporates
  • We recognize 3 types of precipitation
1 relief precipitation
1) Relief precipitation
  • What is it?
    • Air rising to cross and area of HIGH elevation
  • What would create relief precipitation?
    • Mountain barriers
slide25

How do we determine the moisture content?

    • It is measured in relative humidity
    • RH= (amount of moisture in air / moisture-holding capacity) x 100%
slide26

How do we get dew or frost?

    • When the air is calm, water vapour in the air condenses on cool surfaces dew
    • If temperature is below freezing frost
2 convectional precipitation
2) Convectional Precipitation
  • What is it?
    • Air rising because it has absorbed heat from earth’s surface
  • Where do we experience it?
    • Continental locations: Ontario, Quebec, Prairies
  • Look at fig 12-13 on pg 136!
3 cyclonic precipitation
3) Cyclonic Precipitation
  • What is it?
    • Air rises because there is a cooler, denser air mass flowing beneath it, forcing it up.
  • When does it occur?
    • At the site of a FRONT (cold and warm air masses meeting)
  • Cyclonic storm= large, low-pressure
  • Where do we see it?
    • Most of the precipitation in ON, QC, Prairies and Atlantic Canada is cyclonic
cyclonic precipitation
Cyclonic Precipitation

Check out pg 139!