training and education for development n.
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  1. TRAINING AND EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Ph. D. Panel Discussion PIA 2501 By Yongfei Zhao

  2. Outline • Background • A Conceptual Framework • Management Training Approaches • Formal Training • On-the-Job Training • Action Training • Non-Formal Training • Case Studies • Correlation between Human Development and Economic Growth

  3. Background: Rationales for Public Management Training • Developmental needs • Lack adequate educational system • Inadequate public personnel system and policies • The absence of national training policies • Insufficient effort in human resource planning • Insufficient salaries and low compensation levels • Managerial “brain drain” from the public sector • The administrative culture of governments lacks appropriate incentives • The existing training programs are ineffective and problematic

  4. A Conceptual Framework

  5. Management Training Approaches • Formal training methods: lectures, case studies, simulations, and films. • On-the-job training methods, coaching, job rotation, mentoring, and secondment. • Action training methods: Often including formal training methods following such needs-analysis methods as problem census and field analysis. • Non-formal training methods: including support groups, professional associations, and study circles.

  6. Case Studies • Botswana Case (1980s-1990s) • China Case (Since Mid 1990s)

  7. Botswana Case • Four Alternative Training Programs • On-the-Job Training • In-Country Training • Training Programs in the Southern African region • Oversea Training Opportunities for Post-Graduate Master’s Degree Training

  8. Major Training Requirements • Senior District Officer (5) • District Officer—Administrative • District Officer (Administration) (17) • District Officer (Development) (11) • District Officer (Lands) (12) • District Assistant (9) • Clerical (68) (1983-1984)

  9. On-the-Job Training • Models • The introduction course arranged by the Directorate of Personnel (Central) • Ministry organized seminars for District Administrator sub-cadres • Annual Special Council Planning Officer/DO(D) seminars • Land Board Seminars held to support key personnel in the land use area • One week National District Development Conference in December each year

  10. On-the-Job Training • Problems: replacement of expatriates in DO(D) and DO(L) and localize sub-cadre of these offices • Program development steps: • An adequate overlap of at least three months as new graduates assume the position of DO(D) • A one year overlap between departing expatriate DO(L) and in-coming graduates; donor support for both existing expatriate DO(L) and new entry graduates • Short-term operational expert arrangements to provide follow-up OJT for DO(D) and DO(L).

  11. In-Country Training • Eight-week post-graduate certificate program in district development administration—donor supported • Purpose: to provide training tailored to the specific needs of District Officers and prerequisite for further oversea training at either the Diploma or Degree level.

  12. In-Country Training • Modules: • General module: Eight weeks at two hours of lecture per day • Sub-Cadre Specific Modules: tutorial level courses and meet for two hours per day for eight weeks

  13. Regional Training Programs • Nine-month post-graduate diploma training within the Southern African region • Purpose: designed for officers with less education background and do not reach a Master’s degree level • Two candidates per year for a post-graduate diploma level training in the Southern African region • Hosts: nine months diploma course in Rural Development Planning at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare • Introduction to program identification in rural development at the district level • Resources and production • Human organization and mobilization • Development practice

  14. Post-graduate Degree Training • Should be a means to an end, but not be an end in and of itself nor only for a mechanism for promotion or career advancement • Procedures and qualifications: • Restricted Master’s degree specialization: • The Botswana post-graduate training program for DA should be considered a pre-requisite for entry to graduate degree programs (overseas). • Finish the General Module Training (first group in September 1984) • The USAID contractor should identify US institutions which can provide course work and the instructor’s for post graduate degree level training. • Six to eight weeks summer institute.

  15. Non-Graduate Training in the District Administration • Training for the “old” but not very well educated personnel • Strategies: • On-the-Job Training • Institutionalized training: three administrators a year through one of three courses offered at the Botswana Institute of Administration and Commerce • Basic Clerical Administration/Records Management • Basic Supplies Management • Basic Supervision and Management • Certificate Level Training

  16. Botswana Development Index

  17. China Case • Employee training and career development are essential for the purposes of maintaining employee morale, improving managerial skills, changing employee outlook, and enhancing career advancement opportunities. • In June 1996, the Ministry of Personnel of the PRC issued the Provisional Regulations for National Public Servant Training (PRNPST), which formalized the objectives, classifications, subjects, institutions, and management of public servants training programs (MOP, 1996).

  18. Training Types • Pre-service Formal Training • In-Service Training • Leadership Development Trainings

  19. Pre-service Formal Training • Time: after being recruited by the government and before finalizing a career position in offices • Strategies: • Systematic training in Public Administration related courses • Pre-service internship program: one or two years in rural or local government as a probation position

  20. In-Service Training • Strategies: • Formal Education in Public Administration: MPA programs • On-the-Job Training: specialized training, such as Quality Circle training programs • Continuing Education/Refresh Training: EMBA programs, certificate programs such as English and economics. • Inter-Agency Personnel Exchange (Secondment): • To upper or lower level government agencies to serve in a similar position • Exchanged official’s title and status remains the same as in one’s original office • A promotion training process • Problems such as corruption, malpractice, and incapability

  21. Leadership Development Trainings • Role of the National School of Administration and Communist Party School • Purpose: for job promotion • National School of Administration (NSA) system • Established by Chinese central government in Beijing in 1994 as a think tank and public policy research center • Offering graduate level courses to higher ranking officials and analyzing public policies for the State Council • Offering both Master’s and doctoral degree programs • More than 30 local Schools of Administration • The students are administrative personnel from various government agencies at various levels of the government.

  22. Leadership Development Trainings • Chinese Communist Party School (CCPS) system • The highest level of training school for the national, provincial, and local political leaders • Educate and train the political cadres on the role of the Communist Party • Three departments: advance training, continuing education, and graduate studies • Advanced training and continuing education are short-term theoretical training programs designed for those individuals who are encouraged to seek promotions. • The graduate school in the CCPS offers both Master’s and doctoral degrees with the concentration in Communist theory studies and history. • The training programs in the CCPS weight even more than those in other non-party schools.

  23. Oversea Training Programs • Purpose: to organize public service education and improve the quality of public service leadership in China, develop executive talent, build administrative skills, and broaden the mental horizon of in-career civil servants as well as political leaders

  24. Programs • China Public Policy Program (CPPP): cooperation between the Chinese government and the J. F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard • In the late 1990s and with a $2.3 million annual budget • Training initiatives: Strategic Policy Dialogue Initiatives and Research Program, Degree and Executive Program, Targeted Executive and Capacity Strengthening Program, and China’s Leaders in Development Program

  25. Programs • China’s Leaders in Development Program (1) • Co-founded by the Development Research Center of the State Council of the PRC, J. F. Kennedy School of Government, and the School of Public Management and Policy at Tsinghua University, China • The participants in the program are high ranking officials from the central or local government. • The program will remain active for five terms until the end of 2007, with the duration of each term extending over a period of three months, including the enrollment of 60 Chinese officials per year.

  26. Programs • China’s Leaders in Development Program (2) • Two sections: the first section lasts for three weeks and is held at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and the second section is held at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts • This program is carried out in the format of seminars in which Chinese officials choose specific topics or projects as their concentration. • By the end of the program, Chinese officials are expected to acquire practical skills in public administration and policy analysis

  27. China Development Index

  28. The Priority of Human Developmentby Gustav Ranis & Frances Stewart • Presented in the first annual International Forum for Development in 2004 and also in the forum proceeding The Development Imperative: Toward a People-Centered Approach. • Ranis is Director of the Center for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity at the University of Oxford • Stewart is Professor of International Economics at Yale University’s Economic Growth Center

  29. Themes • The Chain Relations between Economic Growth (EG) and Human Development (HD) • Define HD: the health and education of its people • Conclusion: An economy may be on a mutually reinforcing upward spiral, with high levels of HD leading to high EG and high EG in turn further promoting HD. Vice versa.

  30. Findings • A strong regional pattern • With East Asia heavily represented in the virtuous cycle case. • The sub-Saharan African countries and Latin American countries are in the vicious cycle. • Some Latin American countries are in HD-lopsided (Strong HD/Weak EG). • It is not possible to reach the ideal of a virtuous cycle by first generating improved EG while neglecting HD, since any EG attained in this way will not be sustained.

  31. Problems • Chicken or egg? • No clear identification of which one should go first. • Is there any improvement? Really? • Only five out of 69 countries moved from HD-lopsided to the virtuous; most countries remain unchanged for the past four decades. • How about other things?