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The Militarization of America Who Wins, Who Loses?. Prepared by Fund Our Communities Bring the War Dollars Home Of Maryland WITH INPUT FROM Oregon Peaceworks How Much Do We Spend on the Military?.

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the militarization of america who wins who loses

The Militarization of AmericaWho Wins, Who Loses?

Prepared by

Fund Our Communities

Bring the War Dollars Home

Of Maryland


Oregon Peaceworks

u s federal budget fy 2012 discretionary budget
U.S. Federal Budget FY 2012Discretionary Budget

Source: War Resisters League,

u s federal budget fy 2012 unified budget
U.S. Federal Budget FY 2012“Unified” Budget

The Government’s Version

This is How

They Do It

Source: War Resisters League

obama budget proposal fy 2013
Obama Budget Proposal FY 2013

Source: OMB via National Priorities Project

obama budget proposal fy 20131
Obama Budget Proposal FY 2013

Source: OMB via National Priorities Project

obama budget proposal fy 20132
Obama Budget Proposal FY 2013

Source: OMB via National Priorities Project

u s military spending vs other countries in rank order fy 2010
U.S. Military Spending vs. Other Countries, In Rank Order, FY 2010

Billions of Dollars

Source: Computed from SIPRI

top 10 defense budgets and how they compare
Top 10 Defense Budgets and How They Compare

- Source: The International Institute for Strategic Studies

defense expenditures per capita 2008
Defense Expenditures Per Capita, 2008

Source: Friedman and Preble

where does the money go
Where Does the Money Go?
  • Pentagon Spending
  • War costs
  • Foreign military bases
  • War profiteers
dod 2001 2012 in billions of current dollars
DOD, 2001-2012In billions of current dollars





War Funding

Base Budget

2001 2006 2012

Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proflieration

what s in the military budget
What’s in the “Military Budget?”

Source: War Resisters League

where does the money go1
Where Does the Money Go?
  • Pentagon Spending
  • War costs
  • Foreign military bases
  • War profiteers
war costs iraq and afghanistan through 2011
War CostsIraq and Afghanistan Through 2011

Total direct cost of both wars: $1.26 trillion

Iraq: $797 billion

Af/Pak: $460 billion

Total: $1.26 trillion

Source: National Priorities Project

afghanistan war vs world military spending
Afghanistan War vs. World Military Spending

In 2011, the United States spent more on the war in Afghanistan than any other country in the world spent in total on its military.

Billions of Dollars, 2011

Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation; Reuters

afghanistan war costs
Afghanistan War Costs

Estimated U.S. spending in Afghanistan, FY 2011:

$122 billion.

Total state budget shortfalls, 2011:

$112 billion

2010 escalation:

$33 bn = 600,000 U.S. jobs

Source: Congressional Research Service Report RL 33110

total estimated costs of iraq afghanistan 4 to 6 trillion
Total Estimated Costs of Iraq & Afghanistan: $4 to $6 Trillion

With $3.5 trillion, we could send every 18-year-old in the U.S. to a state university. We could pay all their education expenses -- tuition, fees, room and board -- for four years ,

for the next 133 years.

where does the money go2
Where Does the Money Go?
  • Pentagon Spending
  • War costs
  • Foreign military bases
  • War profiteers
u s foreign military bases
U.S. Foreign Military Bases
  • The U.S. maintains about 1,000 foreign military bases.
  • Foreign bases cost taxpayers about $250 billion per year.

Bagram Military Air Base in Afghanistan

Source: Foreign Policy in Focus, Anita Dancs

military bases as the new imperialism
Military Bases as the New Imperialism

95% of all the military bases on another country’s soil are U.S. bases.

“Once upon a time, you could trace the spread of imperialism by counting up colonies. America's version of the colony is the military base.”

Chalmers Johnson, 2004

Source: Chalmers Johnson

foreign bases a provocation
Foreign Bases: A Provocation

The Declaration of Independence criticizes the British “for quartering large bodies of armed troops among us” and “for protecting them . . . from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.”

Foreign bases create enemies and make us less safe.

where does the money go3
Where Does the Money Go?
  • Pentagon Spending
  • War costs
  • Foreign military bases
  • War profiteers
war profiteers example lockheed martin
War ProfiteersExample: Lockheed Martin
  • Percent of L/M profits derived directly from US tax payers, 2010


  • Amount of tax-payer money listed as profit, 2010

$3.2 billion

  • Total compensation of Lockheed Martin CEO, 2011

$21.9 million

Sources: Forbes; Y Charts; LM Company Statements;

lockheed martin getting the money
Lockheed Martin: Getting the Money
  • Former Lockheed VP Bruce Jackson chaired the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq (2002-03)—most influential lobby group for the Iraq war
  • 2010: Military contractors employed 682 “revolving door” hires in 2010 – individuals who oversaw arms companies while in government and then went on to work for those same firms.

Source: Hartung & Ciarrocca

getting the money
Getting the Money

Geographic distribution of subcontractors

“The ideal weapons system is built in 435 Congressional districts and it doesn’t matter whether it works or not.”

Alain C. Enthoven, economist and former Pentagon official

In 2009, Lockheed Martin placed full-page ads in the Washington Post showing the number of jobs for F-22 construction, by Congressional district, throughout the nation.

lockheed martin getting the money1
Lockheed MartinGetting the Money
  • Political donations, 2010 cycle: $2.8 million

2012 cycle: $1.6 million(from L/M PACs and individuals, per FEC)

  • Paid lobbying, 2011: $15 million
  • Political donations to Barack Obama in 2011-12: $14,683 (also $15,966 to Ron Paul!)
  • Total to Congressional incumbents, 2012 cycle: $1,411,972

Source: Open Secrets

what do military contractors do
What Do Military Contractors Do?
  • Feed troops
  • Maintain facilities and equipment
  • Transport cargo
  • Wash clothes
  • Provide security guards for bases and diplomats
  • Engage in military actions

Contractors are doing everything that used to be done solely by the military—for a profit.

contractors vs troops in afghanistan
Contractors vs. Troops in Afghanistan

Source: Congressional Research Service

outsourcing the military
Outsourcing the Military

What are the implications?

outsourcing the military1
Outsourcing the Military
  • Powerful companies promote war because it is profitable
  • The profit motive, in war, can be counter-productive
  • Oversight of contractors is negligible and contractors often do poor jobs
  • Most common type of contracts (cost-plus) encourage waste and unnecessary spending
what does the militarization of america cost the us
What Does the Militarization of America Cost the Us?
  • Macro Economic Costs
  • Environmental Costs
  • Costs to Democracy
a weaker economy
A Weaker Economy

Increased spending on the military relative to other parts of the economy leads to :

  • Fewer jobs
  • Higher interest rates
  • Greater inflation

Source: Center for Economic and Policy Research

the pentagon is taking your job war is a lousy jobs project
The Pentagon is Taking Your Job!War is a Lousy Jobs Project

U.S. Job Creation with $1 Billion Spending

Number of Jobs Created

Education Health Care Clean Energy Consumption Military

Source: U of MA, Political Economy Research Institute

what does the militarization of america cost us
What Does the Militarization of America Cost Us?
  • Macro Economic Costs
  • Environmental Costs
  • Cost to Democracy
environmental costs
Environmental Costs
  • The U.S. military is the biggest polluter in the world, generating an estimated 750,000 tons of toxic waste every year.
  • The military burns an estimated 20 million gallons of gasoline daily—about the same as the entire country of Iran.
  • The military writes its Status of Forces Agreements to exempt the U.S. from responsibility for cleaning up environmental damage.

Sources: Graydon Carter; Barry Sanders

what does the militarization of america cost us1
What Does the Militarization of America Cost Us?
  • Macro Economic Costs
  • Environmental Costs
  • Costs to Democracy
threat to democracy
Threat to Democracy
  • Militarism restricts freedom at home
  • Militarism brings immense amounts of money into the political system, which corrupts it
example moco peace resolution
Example: MoCo Peace Resolution

“The County Council urges the United States Congress to make major reductions in the Pentagon budget, in a manner that does not harm the safety or lives of our troops, with the savings invested in state and local needs so that Montgomery County and other counties in Maryland can repair their deteriorating infrastructure, reverse budget cuts to education, health care, and other needs, and otherwise improve the welfare of their residents.”

what happened
What Happened?
  • Lockheed Martin lobbyists called around!
  • 2 of 5 supporters dropped off—resolution withdrawn
threats to democracy
Threats to Democracy

In what other ways can militarism threaten democracy?

other threats to democracy from militarism
Other Threats to Democracy from Militarism
  • Militarism erodes fundamental rights
    • Legalization of torture
    • Kangaroo courts under Military Commissions Act
    • Loss of habeas corpus under NDAA
  • Demonizes certain citizens who lose basic rights
    • Japanese
    • Arabs
    • Muslims
  • Leads to secrecy -- incompatible with democracy

e.g. Patriot Act

other threats to democracy from militarism1
Other Threats to Democracy from Militarism
  • Expands government surveillance of citizens
    • Putting peace people on terrorist lists
    • Arresting peace activists & impounding equipment
  • Leads to powerful secret paramilitary organizations, illegal actions by government—destroying the rule of law
    • e.g. CIA, Delta Force
threat to democracy1
Threat to Democracy

Of all the enemies to public liberty war is . . . most to be dreaded because it comprises . . . the germ of every other. . . No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare.

James Madison

the cost of militarism
The Cost of Militarism

Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense. Under the clouds of war, it is humanity hanging on a cross of iron.

Pres. Dwight Eisenhower

barney frank ron paul proposal
Barney Frank/Ron Paul Proposal

Sustainable Defense Task Force:

Cut $998 billion over 10 years


Cut nuclear warheads

Reduce size of military forces

Cut certain weapons systems

Source: Debt, Deficits and Defense

cut this
Cut This:
  • End the war in Afghanistan – and don’t start any new wars;
  • Reduce the network of overseas U.S. military bases;
  • Eliminate programs that are obsolete and/or wasteful—including nuclear weapons; and
  • Stop outsourcing war
myth sequestration will devastate the military
MYTH: Sequestration Will Devastate the Military
  • IF sequestration goes into effect, the most that would be cut would bring the Pentagon back to 2007 spending levels (inflation-adjusted).
  • IF the Pentagon sustained the maximum possible cuts under sequestration, the U.S. would still account for 40% of total world military spending.

Source: Conetta, Project on Defense Alternatives

what could we do with some of those pentagon dollars
What Could We Do With Some of Those Pentagon Dollars?

Defray college costs: An educated citizenry provides security!

Maryland Budget & Tax Policy Institute

what could we do with some of those pentagon dollars1
What Could We Do With Some of Those Pentagon Dollars?

Ensure health care coverage to every Marylander!

Maryland Budget and Tax Policy Institute

some md statistics
Some MD Statistics
  • 133,000 children live in poverty
  • Libraries decimated
  • School classes increased, services for kids cut
  • 44% of roads and 25% of bridges are in need of repair
  •  3,642 people with developmental disabilities are on a waiting list to receive needed state services
  • Public health services are being drastically cut across the state—meaning more sickness and unnecessary death
state budget vs oregon war funding
State Budget vs. Oregon War Funding

What Oregon residents paid in FY 2012 towards the Pentagon budget: $5.o bn

Entire State FY 2011-13 budget: $14.7 bn

($7.35 bn/year)

2011-13 Shortfall: $3.5 bn

Source: National Priorities Project,

decorated marine general smedley butler writing in 1935
Decorated Marine General Smedley Butler, writing in 1935

“I spent 33 years and 4 months in active service as a member of our country’s most agile military force — the Marine Corps.... And during that period I spent most of my time being a high-class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street, and for the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer for capitalism.... I helped make Mexico, especially Tampico, safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street... I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. In China I helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested… Looking back on it, I feel I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three city districts. We Marines operated on three continents.”

  • Military spending at current levels is not beneficial to:
  • The U.S. public
  • The U.S. economy
  • U.S. freedoms
  • World stability
  • The State of Oregon
  • The environment
  • Our spiritual well-being


  • American Forces Press Service,
  • American Friends Service Committee,
  • Amnesty International,
  • Bacevich, Andrew, Washington Rules, America’s Path to Permanent War, Metropolitan Books, 2010.
  • Center for Arms Control and Non Proliferation, 2009 Briefing Book,
  • Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, “Putting Afghanistan Troop Increases in Perspective,” Dec. 2.
  • Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation:
  • Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation:
  • Center on Budget and Policy Priorities,
  • Center for Economic and Policy Research:
  • Chalmers Johnson, America’s Empire of Bases.
sources continued
Sources, continued
  • Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Interim Report, June 2009:
  • Conetta, Carl, Project on Defense Alternatives,
  • CNN , Congress to Probe Private Military Contractors in Afghanistan:
  • Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Report. War At Any Price?:
  • Congressional Research Service Report RL 33110, September 28, 2009
  • Congressional Research Service Report R40764, September 21, 2009,
  • Congressional Research Service Report RL 33222, US Foreign Aid to Israel,
  • Congressional Research Service:
  • Daily Kos: “Our Taxes Are off to War,” March 8, 2010:
  • Anita Dancs, Mary Orisich, Suzanne Smith, The Military Costs of Securing Energy (National Priorities Project – October 2008)
sources continued1
Sources, continued
  • Debt, Deficits and Defense, Sustainable Defense Task Force, 2010:
  • Tom Englehardt: Tomdispatch,
  • Experts Letter on Defense Spending, Nov. 18, 2010,
  • Forbes:
  • Foreign Policy in Focus: Anita Dancs, The Cost of the Global U.S. Military Presence, July 2009:
  • Foreign Policy in Focus, A Unified Security Budget:
  • Friends Committee on National Legislation, “Keeping Military Spending in Balance with the Nation’s Priorities,” March 16, 2009.
  • Benjamin Friedman and Christopher Preble, “Budgetary Savings from Military Restraint,” Policy Analysis, Cato Institute, Sept. 23, 2010:
  • William Hartung and Michelle Ciarrocca, “ Corporate Think Tanks and the Doctrine of Aggressive Militarism,” The Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 2003.
  • Huck Gutman,
  • ublications/NPP_Security_Spending_Primer.pdf
sources continued2
Sources, continued
  • Iraq Coalition Casualties:
  • Jeremy Scahill, interviewed by Bill Moyers, June 2009.
  • John Feffer, “Good War vs. Great Society,” Foreign Policy in Focus, Sept. 22, 2009.
  • Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War, Norton & Co., 2008.
  • Just Foreign Policy:
  • Lockheed Martin Financial Statement
  • Maryland Budget and Tax Policy Institute:
  • National Priorities Project:
  • National Priorities Project Security Spending Primer:
  • National Priorities Project, Talking About Military Spending and the Pentagon Budget:
  • National Academies Press, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, 2010,
  • National Priorities Project, Out of Balance:
  • National Priorities Project, President’s Budget FY 2011:
  • Newser:
sources continued3
Sources, continued
  • Open Secrets: and
  • Pape, Robert A., “It’s the Occupation, Stupid,” Foreign Policy , Oct. 18, 2010:,0
  • Peace Corps Web Site,
  • Political Economy Research Institute, U. of Mass., Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier , “The U.S. Employment Effects of Military and Domestic Spending Priorities ,” , Oct. 9, 2009:
  • Project on Defense Alternatives:
  • Project on Defense Alternatives,
  • Project on Government Oversight,
  • Rand, “How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering Al Qa’ida ”
  • Refugees International:
  • Reuters, Chinese Military Spending: