Patriot Act. October 26, 2001. U nited (and) S trengthening A merica (by) P roviding a ppropriate t ools r equired (to) i ntercept (and) o bstruct T errorism Act of 2001. Passage.
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Patriot Act • October 26, 2001
United (and)StrengtheningAmerica (by)Providingappropriatetoolsrequired (to)intercept (and)obstructTerrorismAct of 2001
Passage • Following the terrorist attacks on 9/11, the Justice Department drafted a bill called the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001 • The bill was designed to enhance federal anti-terrorism investigations • Republican Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner introduced the bill to congress and Viet Dinh was the main author • The Senate version passed on October 11, 2001. The House version was altered several times before being passed. • In the Senate, all but one Senator supported the act • President Bush signed the bill into law on October 26, 2001
Main provisions of the act • Title 1 - Authorizes the seizure of property from suspected terrorists • Title 2 - Allows the interception of communications if they’re related to terrorist activities without initial consent • Title 3 - Law enforcement agencies can gather information from banks • Title 4 - Strengthens border security by increasing funding for border patrols and officials. • Title 5 - Allows NSLs (National Security Letters- demand for release of information and paperwork related to a person under investigation) to be used against U.S. citizens and can prevent the target from knowing about it/telling anyone
Main provisions of the act (cont.) • Title 6 - Gives provisions and financial help to victims of terrorism and their families • Title 7 - Authorization and budgeting for increased sharing of information between law-enforcement agencies and jurisdictions • Title 8 - Adds several crimes to acts of terrorism • Title 9 - Creates a method of sharing national intelligence information between government agencies • Title 10 - Minor provisions
Controversy • Goes against the first amendment: • The Patriot Act allowed Muslim organizations and individuals to be accused of having links to terrorism • Goes against fourth amendment: • The Patriot Act appears to infringe on a person’s privacy and allows the search of electronic information without consent • Goes against the fifth amendment: • The Patriot Act allows the confiscation of a terrorist’s property without stating a his/her offenses (accept terrorist ownership)
For and Against Opposition • Generally Democrats are against the Patriot Act • Many interest groups including: • All Libertarians • Campaign for Liberty • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) • American Liberty Association • Patriots to Restore Checks and Balances • Support • Generally Republicans are for the Patriot Act, however, in recent times, more and more are opposing it • Department of Homeland Security • Law Enforcement Agencies • Emergency Response Agencies • Not many, if not zero, interest groups
Public Opinion Should the government take all steps necessary to prevent additional acts of terrorism in the U.S. even if it means your liberties would be violated? Or should the government take steps to prevent additional acts of terrorism but not if those steps would violate your basic civil liberties? Source: The Gallup Organization
Public Opinion (cont.) Do you think the Bush administration has gone too far, has been about right, or has not gone far enough in restricting people’s civil liberties in order to fight terrorism? Source: The Gallup Organization
Reauthorization • Because the law was set to expire in 2005, Bush heavily advocated its renewal • The renewal proposed permanent sections and several new amendments and was passed • However, the supreme court struck down some of its proponents in 2007 • In 2011, President Obama signed into law a four-year extension to proponents of the bill that had to be renewed including: • roving wiretaps • court-ordered searches of business records • surveillance of non-American suspects without confirmed ties to terrorist groups
Bibliography • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/27/patriot-act-extension-signed-obama-autopen_n_867851.html • http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/the-patriot-act.html • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactdeal.html#issue6 • http://univ-paris3.academia.edu/JacobMaillet/Papers/76560/The_Controversy_over_the_USA_Patriot_Act • http://people.howstuffworks.com/patriot-act3.htm